Monday, September 30, 2019
Maxim GorkyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Lower DepthsÃ¢â¬ shows the struggle between classes. Unquestionably, its focus is on the lowest of the economically low class people being controlled by the bourgeoisie. It is also a representation of how cruel the society could be towards them and how, in turn, the people are affected by the society. Although the play talks of the story of low class people Ã¢â¬âthe vagrant, the gambler, the ex-artist, the ex-aristocrat, the prostitute, and so many others, the thiefÃ¢â¬â¢s character is the best to display the struggle between the classes. Thieves are likely to be wicked, troublesome, and disobedient. However, the thief in the text projects only the wickedness and troublesomeness but is not really disobedient. He is a bit subservient to the whims of their landlady. Though it is true that there are times when he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to follow what the woman says, in the end the woman would always find a way to make him do whatever she likes. For instance, when the landlady wanted the thief to kill her husband, the thief refused. And to bring her plans into reality, she beats Natasha Ã¢â¬âwhom the thief cared about. This made the thief furious and he went to confront the landlady but he incidentally killed her husband instead. Aside from this, the fact that the landlady Ã¢â¬Å"ownedÃ¢â¬ her sister Natasha made the thief adhere to her caprice. He is always protecting his love and is willing to do everything to spare her from the landlord and the landladyÃ¢â¬â¢s injustice. The text embodies how the low class people resist the ideology of those in the higher classes. However, because of circumstances they are in, they end up going along with whatever those in higher classesÃ¢â¬â¢ demands. The lower economic groups are ignored in this text by those higher than them. The mere title of the play is distasteful. The place where the characters live is created and tagged as the lower depths by no other than the society itself. This just means that the society is also the primary reason for the repression experienced by the people. What the society didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize is that these low class people are in the lower depths because they are deprived of chances to attain their goals and they are put on circumstances that destroy their self-confidence. The system of the ruling class caused the alienation of the low class people, therefore causing them not to be able to live their lives to the fullest. Also, the setting is where the characters tell their stories and debate on whether it is better to live without illusions on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own capability or to embrace a romanticized view of the world in order to protect oneself from the pain of daily life. In the play, it is the character of Luka who seems to idealize everything in life and the one who demonstrate that philosophy is meant to be used as an instrument to initiate change. Precisely, it was him who played the opposing figure to the rest of the characters. He is an example of an old man whom experiences made wise. He serves as an inspiration to everyone he meets by urging each of them to start a new life. In spite of this, his extreme optimism could also be the same reason why his life failed. And although he amazed the neglected lower class people in the lower depths, his arrival in their lives was too late that their energy and will has already taken from them. No matter how those people try to ascend from the social swamp, they are always shoved back into the depths. For example, when Natasha and the thief were about to begin a new life, destiny surpass them. Natasha was terribly beaten by her sister and when the thief came to confront the landlady, he accidentally killed the landlord. The theme of the play could be about the dominance of the higher class over the lower classes. As one of the playÃ¢â¬â¢s characters puts it Ã¢â¬Å"And so for all the othersÃ¢â¬ ¦. Locksmiths then Ã¢â¬ ¦ bootmakers and other working folk Ã¢â¬ ¦ and all the agriculturals Ã¢â¬ ¦ and even the gentry Ã¢â¬â they live for the better man! Each thinks Ã¢â¬ËeÃ¢â¬â¢s livinÃ¢â¬â¢ fer Ã¢â¬Ëimself, yet it turns out itÃ¢â¬â¢s fer that better manÃ¢â¬ . All of them who live in the depths and all the other workers seem to believe that they are living for themselves. What they donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize is that they are living to work and feed the bourgeoisie. And aside from this, the fact that the characters came from different field means that the bourgeoisie could control all aspects of the culture. To sum up, the play is a depiction of how the bourgeoisie rule the society. And the fact that the society puts the label to people shows how powerful it could affect other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The Not So Good Earth For a while there we had 25-inch Chinese peasant families famishing in comfort on the 25-inch screen and even Uncle Billy whose eyesight's going fast by hunching up real close to the convex glass could just about make them outÃ¢â¬âthe riot scene in the capital city for example he saw that better than anything, using the contrast knob to bring them up darkÃ¢â¬âall those screaming faces and bodies going under the horses' hoovesÃ¢â¬âhe did a terrific job on that bit, not so successful though on the quieter parts where they're just starving away igging for roots in the not-so-good earth cooking up a mess of old clay and coming out with all those Confucian analects to everybody's considerable satisfaction (if I remember rightly Grandmother dies with naturally a suspenseful break in the action for a full symphony orchestra plug for Craven A neat as a whistle probably damn glad to be quit of the whole gang with their marvelous patience. ) We never did find out how it finished upÃ¢â¬ ¦ Dad at this stage tripped over the main lead in the dark hauling the whole set down smack on its inscrutable face, iping out in a blue flash and curlicue of smoke 600 million Chinese without a traceÃ¢â¬ ¦ The title contains Ã¢â¬Å"not-so-goodÃ¢â¬ describing the contents of the poem, which is a negative adjective compound. It is a parody of the book Ã¢â¬Å"The Good EarthÃ¢â¬ by Pearl Buck, which is about the good times, values and Chinese proverbs. The phrase Ã¢â¬Å"For a while thereÃ¢â¬ shows how Western society is apathetic towards the Chinese. Ã¢â¬Å"25-inch Chinese peasant familiesÃ¢â¬ explains that the characters in the poem are watching a 25-inch screen television. Ã¢â¬Å"famishing in comfortÃ¢â¬ is a juxtaposition in line two, whose comfort?Certainly not the Chinese. In line four Ã¢â¬Å"convex glassÃ¢â¬ relates to the television. Dashes Ã¢â¬Å"-Ã¢â¬ in the first nine lines represent changes in tone of language and persona of the narrator. Ã¢â¬Å"He saw that better than anythingÃ¢â¬ -there is more concern for Uncle Billy being able to see whatÃ¢â¬â¢s happening than what is actually happening. In line 11, the main character is bored by the part Ã¢â¬Å"where theyÃ¢â¬â¢re just starving awayÃ¢â¬ , this shows his lack of compassion for their situation. Ã¢â¬Å"Confucian analectsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Chinese philosopher. Analects are proverbs and/or homely wise sayings.In line 21 Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬ represents the television. From line 21 onwards they seem to be more worried about the television breaking than they do about the real life tragedy of the deaths of so many Chinese peasant families. Line 25 (the last line) concludes with the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"600 million Chinese without a traceÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ this portrays the complacency of western society in the way that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize there is life beyond their own lives, they are so immersed in themselves, that they think that this reportage is only for ente rtainment and once the television brakes the scene just goes off air.They donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize that this is still happening after the Television breaks, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel touched or even realize that this is a real life thing not just some program. Generally: Consider the general attitude: very complacent and detached. The characters are ignorant and apathetic towards the Chinese in the documentary. Revealing the imperfection of western society being too self-absorbed, and preying on their lack of consideration and respect for others. The poem constantly drifts between fact and fiction.Floating in the midst of reality displayed on the television, and the artificial world which our mind creates to block out the poverty and suffering that we are not directly involved with. Throughout the poem the media promotes death scenes and action, while blunting the emotional impact of reality. Dawe uses many colloquialisms Ã¢â¬Å"to be quit of the whole gangÃ¢â¬ this express the general laid back style of the poem. Tone: Dawe maintains the tension between humor and seriousness.The Not-so-good Earth (1966) Like Ã¢â¬ËTelevistas' this poem is centred on the common place activity of watching television. It is a concept totally within the audience's experience. Television in our consumer society is our prime source of information and entertainment. Often the two become confused: lives and human tragedy are considered a product, something that will engender interest and thereby generate revenue. The greater the suffering, the more successful the program and the greater market share.Dawe is concerned that we have become desensitised to human suffering because it is presented to us as entertainment: a product rather than an issue. The irony is that we have become emotionally distanced from reality even though the world enters our homes via television. The title and the film description are references to Ã¢â¬ËThe Good EarthÃ¢â¬ based on a novel by Pearl Buck. Set dur ing the Japanese advance on China during the late 1930s, it contains ideas that the land sustains life and that suffering is rewarded.This poem describes a family viewing the film, complete with the advertisements, and their reaction (or rather, lack of) to it. They never actually see the end as the father trips over the cord in the darkened room. It is a very satirical poem that creates black humour. Through the characters' complete insensitivity and absence of either empathy or sympathy, Dawe expresses amazement at the complacency of people in our society. There is continual tension between the humour and the seriousness of what is described.For instance, Uncle Billy's sight problems are comical but Dawe's biting satire is evident by its juxtaposition to the riot scene's seriousness he is straining to see. The uncle's triviality is as obvious as the insensitivity of the watchers. Modern man is more concerned with superficial appearances, Ã¢â¬Ëusing the contrast knob to bring the m up dark', the Ã¢â¬Ëmess of old clay' that is dinner, than in meanings attached to them. There seems an inability to comprehend the events as having happened to real people.The narrator is used to suggest modern man is apathetic and completely self absorbed. He is revealed as such by his inability to comprehend the implication of his comments. He speaks about the Chinese Ã¢â¬Ëfamishing in comfort on the 25-inch screen'. The paradox is clear to the audience. The reference to the Ã¢â¬Ëterrific job' on the Ã¢â¬Ëscreaming faces and bodies going under the horses' hooves' reveals a similar insensitivity. The lack of punctuation helps create the idea that society does not pause to consider the reality of other people's suffering.Instead, like the narrator, we just move quickly onto the next item of information. Here Dawe mocks the movie's idea that suffering reaps reward: how can it if nobody even notices? The fact the narrator does not seem at all concerned about what happened in the unseen ending further demonstrates his lack of engagement. The Ã¢â¬Ëblue flash' eliminating the picture represents how quickly the situation has been forgotten. The blank screen and the Ã¢â¬Ëdead' set may symbolise modern peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ inability to empathise with others. Our concerns are trite and centred on ourselves.WeÃ¢â¬â¢re indifferent to the suffering of others and view it only as a source of entertainment. Dawe also suggests that the media nurtures this insensitivity. It is ironic that in an age (thanks to the media)where people know far more about what happens all over the world that people seem to care little beyond their own insular world. There is a sense of confusion between reality and fiction. It is ironic that advertisements for luxury indulgences like Ã¢â¬ËCraven A' cigarettes have been interjected into what should be deeply moving moments of the film.The advertisement is described as having a Ã¢â¬Ëfull symphony orchestra' which is a farcical contras t to the grandmother's death. The media does not treat tragedy as real and this blunts society's reactions and emotional involvement. Linked to both these ideas is the way people distance themselves from unpleasantness and shirk responsibility. Dawe's use of the aside'( if I remember rightly.. )' implies that the narrator deliberately avoids discussion of the seriousness of the movie's events. Not-so-good-Earth' is a clever poem that maintains the audience's interest. It is colloquial, using everyday expressions like Ã¢â¬ËFor a while there', Ã¢â¬Ëa terrific job' and Ã¢â¬Ëprobably damn glad'. This makes it very accessible. It is also personal with the use of the first person. It is, at least at first glance, humorous, but the humour darkens as the poem progresses. The title is a pun, referring both to the movie and our modern society. Overall, whilst the events are clearly exaggerated, they stimulate the audience to evaluate their own attitudes.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Beginning in 1866 until the present time many labor leaders have initiated many effective and important labor laws. Throughout the past one hundred plus years there have been many steps forward in the labor movement along with a few major steps back. The actions of these labor leaders and the accomplishments of the acts that they have helped to pass have paved the way for the American worker in today's society. One of the labor laws that had an impact was the Taft-Hartley Act. The Taft-Hartley act formerly called the Labor-management Relations Act was passed in 1947. Its founders were Senator Robert A. Taft and Representative Fred A. Hartley. This act helped in collective bargaining along with allowing workers the right to defer from joining a union. This act required unions to give notification of a strike sixty days before it was to occur. It also outlawed specific union practices that were unfair and required that union officers must deny any Communist affiliations while under oath. Another of the labor acts that contributed to the labor movement was the National Labor Relations Act. It was passed by Congress in 1935. It has been called the Magna Carta of American labor. The National Labor Relations Act guaranteed workers the right to join unions without fear of being punished by management. In order to enforce this law the National Labor Relations Board was formed. This act prevented employers from committing unfair labor practices that would make the worker be afraid to organize a union or sign a union contract. Yet another labor law was the Davis-Bacon Act of 1931. Created by Congressman Robert Bacon and Senator James Davis, this act was mainly established to grant stability to the construction industry. The bid requirements on public projects were low and this allowed outside contractors to obtain work on substandard wages. This also caused contractors to look past the high paid local workers to the lower paid workers from around the country. Davis and Bacon felt it was wrong for workers from other areas to be herded together to work for lower wages than the standard in that state. An important labor leader in the early labor movement was Francis Perkins. Francis Perkins devoted much of her life to the improvement of the American Worker. While going to school at Mt. Holyoke College, Perkins gained an interest in social reform. This interest grew when she joined the National Consumer League, which had a goal to improve labor conditions through consumer pressure. In 1928, New York governor Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Perkins as the head of the state labor department. Four years later, when Roosevelt was elected to the presidency, Perkins was asked to be his secretary of labor. Perkins played a major role in Roosevelt's response to the Great Depression. She also was an advocate of social security, wage and hour regulation, and the abolition of child labor. Eugene V. Debs was another famous labor leader. Debs made the first major attempt to form a labor union for both skilled and unskilled workers of a specific industry. This attempt was the American Railway Union. Debs also played a major role in the Pullman Strike in 1894. He asked for arbitration and when Pullman refused to negotiate Debs and the American Railway Union began boycotting Pullman train. Later in the Pullman strike Deb was arrested. While in prison Debs realized his true calling. He became a spokesperson for the Socialists Party of America and ran for president five times. Surprisingly, in 1912, he won 900,000 votes. A famous quote of Deb's was, Ã¢â¬Å"I say now, that while there is a lower class, I am in it; while there is a criminal element, I am of it; while there is a soul in prison, I am not free.Ã¢â¬ A significant strike of the past was the aforementioned Pullman Strike. The Pullman strike began during the Panic of 1893. The Pullman Company laid off three thousand of its fifty-eight hundred employees. The Pullman workers all lived in houses owned by the Pullman Company and had to pay rent. The remaining employees had their wages cut twenty-five to thirty percent and the housing prices remained the same. After paying the rent on their homes, their paychecks dwindled down to almost nothing. Later, after the depression, two thousand Pullman workers were hired. Again, the Pullman Company did not restore wages of compensate with lower housing rates. In the spring of 1894, the outraged workers called for a strike. The strike was one of peace, that is until Pullman hired strikebreakers. This brought on a violent end to the strike. In conclusion, Pullman fired most of the strikers and named more to a blacklist. The Homestead strike occurred in 1892. It began when workers from the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers struck the Carnegie Steel Company's Homestead plant in order to protest a cut in wages. The company's general manager, Henry C. Frick, was determined to break the union. He hired strikebreakers and then hired three hundred detectives to protect the plant and the strikebreakers. After an armed battle between the detectives and workers, three detectives and six workers were dead. The strike ended on November 20th after the plant reopened and nonunion workers remained on the job. This strike caused a weakening effect on the unions of the steel industry that would take forty years to repair. A more recent labor issue was the United Parcel Service's strike in 1997. The central issues of this strike were part-time work, pensions, and subcontracting. The union claimed that many part-time workers work full time hours without getting paid the full time rates, which are almost twice that of the part-time. The union also wanted an increase in contributions to its pension and health funds. The union would not budge on this issue and UPS met their demands. The last aspect of the strike was subcontracting. The union claimed that a loophole in their contracts was allowing more than the one percent limit of the business to go to subcontractors. There are many opinions on whether or not the strike was a victory for the union but at the end the workers were back on the job. The Haymarket Affair, sometimes called the Haymarket Riot, began on the night of May 4, 1886, as a form of protest after the killing of a striker by police on the previous day. On this night 1,200 protesters met at Chicago's Haymarket Square where police opposed them. Chaos ensued as someone threw a bomb into the police line. Eight men, three speakers and five other radicals, were charged with starting a riot. Four were hanged while one committed suicide in prison. After the Haymarket Affair, the public began to shy away from the labor movement. In July of 1877 the Strike of 1877 became a turning point in labor history. A worker's strike at the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad began in order to protest the second cut of wages in just a few months. This strike would lead to strikes from every railroad east of the Mississippi and then later would spread to western railroads. Fifty thousand miles of railroad were halted for more than a week. This caused riots in Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Chicago, St. Louis, and San Francisco. After President Rutherford B. Hayes sent troops in to break up the strike, the strikers began to retreat. On August 6th, the strike was over and railroads were up and going again. The case of Muller vs. Oregon is a famous Supreme Court labor case. The focal points of this case were the Fourteenth Amendment versus the Tenth Amendment. In these times in Oregon it was illegal for a woman to work for more than ten hours in a factory or laundry. In 1905, a suit was filed against Curt Muller for making Mrs. E. Gotcher work more than ten hours. After being found guilty, Muller took his case to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court would later rule against him. Another Supreme Court issue of the labor movement was the Munn v. Illinois case. Munn, a partner in a Chicago warehouse firm, had been found guilty by an Illinois court of violating the state laws providing for the fixing of maximum charges for storage of grain. He appealed, contending that the fixing of maximum rates constituted a taking of property without due process of law. The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws, establishing as constitutional the principle of public regulation of private businesses involved in serving the public interest. Since 1866 the labor unions have been involved in many more strikes and there have been new labor leaders who have been involved in controversial court cases in order to make sure that workers are treated fairly. Throughout the history of the United States labor has changed greatly and it will continue to change in the future.
Friday, September 27, 2019
A Probation Officers View of Effectiveness - Essay Example The acceptable thing is that the effectiveness of any correctional effort has to be life-changing so that the positive changes remain tenacious. A Texas Prison Major was quoted, Dilulio, 1987, p 146 that he does believe, like every one, from the director to the warden to the boss in the cellblock, that prisons can be run well and that, the prisons don't have to unsafe, unclean or un-educational. For good programs and good safety go together with good management. In dealing with the intangibles, the perception becomes enormously relative. What is good for one is unacceptable to the other. Why is that There are so many variables at play here that to be able to provide a sustainable argument would be futile. Yet, behavioral science continues to endeavor, in a bid to come up with an acceptable measuring criterion. In this case, measuring the 'effectiveness' of the Probation Officers. The Case Study presented here is a classic study of human action and reaction. It is evident that for an idea to be pushed ahead, a climate of awareness and acceptance has to be created before action can be initiated. Historically action for change is a constant for organizations. It is when the actions boomerang; to expose the ugly side of the initiator [read Probation Officers] that such a report creates havoc. It may be bad enough to bring in the public, the politicians, the social agencies, etc. into the fray. We shall look at three very distinct, pertinent and fact localizing questions that are derived from the Case Study from Criminal Justice Organizations by Stan Stojkovic, David Kalinich, John Klofas, Organizational Effectiveness, Chapter 13, page 345347. Firstly - Whose interests were served in the newspaper's evaluation of this department, and whose will be served by the proposed evaluation A news report of this kind cannot remain contained to a specific issue. In an all Probation Officer 4 engulfing action, it would invade private as well as public domain. It did. From the newspaper's point of view the purpose was wholly served, it informed and instigated action. It prompted the resignation of the Chief. The newspaper may, by this, claim to have started a cleansing process. For the Probation Department, the news report may have kicked up a lot of dirt. The newspaper's evaluation broadcasted the urgency for reforms in the functioning and effectiveness of the Department. It showed the chasm that exists between what is permitted and what was practiced by the Officers and the department as a whole. It played up the under utilization of the work force. More importantly, it brought out that the ultimate goal of providing effective rehabilitation services was not being achieved which was echoed by many social service agencies. The newspaper report though it impaled the department, was good for it, for what should apparently have been an internal inquiry job was done externally by the newspaper and therefore remained objective. The report was not allowed to settle down; the newspaper's serial ensured that it drew the
Thursday, September 26, 2019
The Importance of effective communication to quality nursing care - Coursework Example While communicating, the nurse should always pay attention to both verbal and non-verbal communication to get the right information required for the patient care (Harrington & Terry, 2009). For effective communication, various techniques have to be utilized to ensure proper communication with the patient. For instance, the nonverbal communication is important. The nurse should ensure that there is agreement between the non-verbal and the verbal communication. Some of the nonverbal communications to note as the process of communication goes on is facial expressions, posture and gestures among others. Listening is important in the process of communication. By paying keen attention to the patient, gives the nurse a chance to mobilize all the perceiving sensory organs to allow for picking of the messages emitted both verbally and non-verbally. At the same time, the self-esteem of the patient is raised hence allowing the patient to open up even more. God interpersonal relationship is important for gaining the confidence of the patient. The patient feels secure and respected with the appropriate use of kindness when asking questions. The patient feels accepted as the nurse s hows interest on the patient. Hence, by use of the good interpersonal relationships, the nurse can get the necessary information that will go a long way in efficient patient care (Harrington & Terry,
Coca-Cola Brand - Essay Example Target customers could be reached by offering the product that is packaged in can, to the manufacturers of sporting goods, gasoline stations, organizers of big sporting events, club wears, clubs and discos and clubs. b. Names of customer segments. These are the sportsmen, athletes, casual sports drinkers, lifestyle users, recreational users, teenagers, long distance drivers, night time workers and variety seekers who would like to experiment a new taste of drink. The market place of US, Western Europe, Great Britain, Germany, Spain, Mexico and Latin America have been chosen because, Coke has established a foothold in terms of market position in these areas. (Sami,Ullah, Khan). Launching of a new product will not cost too much in terms of publicity, PR and advertising Coke has been known for its quality product. Dealers will be encouraged to stock up with the product to increases sales, profitability and growth. Potential customers will be interested with PowerAde because of the belief that the product will give them the energy they need and that they trust that the product will look after his/her health, so that they can have all the fun they want without worrying for their health. As an energy drink, consumers buy them because they need it for their work. d. What kind of differentiated marketing strategy you will use to reach the target market? PowerAde will come in the form of cans. As an energy drink, it has a clear purpose that will differentiate it with other drinks. It can also be offered as an advertising media itself, by making a tie-up with promotion of events. For instance, the PowerAde in can may promote Olympic events, Milo marathon, Disney movie, car racing and big sports events that will attract
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The New Deal and the Great Society - Essay Example Roosevelt believed that other matters were far more important than racial discrimination. Never willing to lose the support of Southern Congressional Democrats, he declined to support legislation making lynching a crime, while denouncing lynching in his speeches. He declined to advocate banning the poll tax, used by southern whites to deny the vote to southern blacks. He refused to use the relief agencies to challenge local patterns of discrimination; the NRA tolerated widespread practices of paying blacks less than whites, blacks were largely excluded from employment in the TVA; the FHA refused to provide mortgages to blacks moving into white neighborhoods; and the AAA was ineffectual in protecting the interest of black share croppers and tenant farmers. Some liberal historians argue that the New Deal laid the groundwork for the Ã¢â¬Å"broker stateÃ¢â¬ to be expanded a generation later, mostly through the work of the next wave of liberal reform Ã¢â¬â the civil rights movement and the Great Society Ã¢â¬â to embrace groups marginalized in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬â however, many African American historians insist that the civil rights movement owed everything to black activists and very little to the New Deal. Roosevelt was an idealist with a vision. He promised the American people a New Deal, but when he took office during his first term, he had no idea what that New Deal would consist of. He knew the American people were in dire need of relief, and this could only be brought about through recovery, and that all aspects of the American system were in need of reform. need of reform. As a consequence, his initial foundation was premised on what has become known as the three R's.The first effort which he embarked upon was the providing of relief. Taking the remnants of an old Hoover program; the federal Emergency Relief Administration, which was a work relief program, Roosevelt scrapped what he considered to be viable and to it he added the civilian conservation corps. He added auxiliary programs i.e., Works Progress Administration, and beginning in 1935, he introduced his most long standing and beneficial social security and unemployment insurance programs. It was obvious that rural America, albeit suffering from the same
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Scrum Methods in Software Development - Research Paper Example In this scenario, many researchers present the common description of the agile manifesto. According to researchers such as (Lucia and Qusef; Paetsch, Eberlein and Maurer; Kavitha and Thomas) agile methodology its family members are based on the following principles (Lucia & Qusef, 2010; Paetsch et al., 2003; Kavitha & Thomas, 2011): Without a doubt, agile software development methodologies have been developed to deal with the issues of delivering high quality software promptly under quickly and continuously changing business environment and requirements. In fact, agile software development methodologies have an excellent reputation in the IT and software sector. The research has shown than more than 69% of IT firms are adapting one or more agile methodologies for use in common project management as well as organizational development (Lucia and Qusef). Previous researches that have been conducted to determine positive and negative impacts of agile software development methodologies are mainly based on unreliable and subjective verification instead of logical and experimental assessment. However, at the present, there exists a large amount of facts and proofs on agile software development methodologies in various forms such as case studies, experiments and experience reports carried out on a wide variety of aspects of agile approaches taking into consideration different software development scenarios. In addition, a number of survey studies have been carried out by different researchers which present a broader and general idea on the position of agile approaches in various software development firms. In this scenario, the results of the Forrester survey revealed that whereas to the extent that more than 14% of European enterprises and North American are presently making use of agile approaches, on the other hand more
Monday, September 23, 2019
Taxation - Essay Example Back in 2002, the government introduced new reforms on company cars. The company car tax reform encourages people to buy of choose cars with lower levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Purposely, the reforms are aimed at tackling changes in climate and greenhouse gas emissions. Also, it also encourages manufacturers to introduce greener cars. As a result, businesses should evaluate their current fleet arrangements and especially those that emit carbon in order to minimize costs. The Government also aims at increasing its revenue (Melville 2012). It has already estimated additional cumulative tax revenue of c?3bn over five years if changes come to effect. The changes will affect three categories of people. To begin with, employers purchasing or leasing cars that are made available to their staffs for business and personal use. Then, employees provided for with a company car and fuel for private use. Changes on cars with private fuel benefits took effect as from April 2012 while ch anges on capital allowance and lease rental restriction consequences will take effect from April 2013 a. Changes on company car tax rates In the motoring industry, the government has announced for a further three tax years up to 2016/17. In years 2014/15, the appropriate percentage of a company car's price which is subject to tax will go up by 1% point compared to the previous years for those cars which emit more than 75g/km of CO2, to a maximum of 35% and by two percentage points, to a maximum of 37 per cent in both years 2015/16 and years 2016/17 (Melville 2012). In year 2015/2016, the special rates that exist for zero emission and ultra low carbon cars will be changed to 13% while in years 2016/17, the rate will be set to 15%. As from April 2016, supplement for diesel cars which is 3% will be removed. For company cars made available for private use, the government announced that specific security enhancements will be excluded as accessories for the purpose of calculating cash equ ivalent benefit. This change is already being applied as it took effect from 6 April 2011. b. Changes on Private fuel benefit As from April 2012, the multiplier for calculating the cash equivalent free fuel benefit on company cars provided to employees has been increased from ?18,800 to ?20,200. In addition, a further increase to this multiplier has been proposed by the government for 2013-14 by 2% above the rate of inflation. c. Changes on Capital allowances and lease rental restriction According to HMRC, first year capital allowance on the car expenditure which is usually 100% has its period extended by the government to April 2015. On the other hand, the threshold on emissions will decrease from 110g/km to 95g/km starting April 2013. Also, as from April 2013, the threshold for expenditure on cars to fall into the main pool which is 18% per annum, rather than the special rate pool of 8% per annum decreases from 160g/km to 130g/km. On lease rentals for cars with over 130g/km emissi ons, tax relief available to employers is restricted at 15%. On lease rentals for cars with over 130g/km emissions, tax relief available to employers is restricted at 15% (Melville 2012). d. Changes on Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) As from April 201
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Drama Part 1 Essay The piece of Drama we have created is called The Fear of the Unknown. We looked at various ways of interpreting the title before agreeing on a suitable theme. Our story covers the death of a character and studies the reactions of characters in different situations. The actual cause of death is left to the imagination and is never actually mentioned. This links in with the title we were given. I am going to compare The fear of the unknown with the play The Woman in Black by Susan Hill and adapted by Steven Mallatratt. I will also use the Crucible text by Arthur Miller and Blue Remembered Hills text. In the Woman in Black as the actor approaches the house a gobo is shown to show Eel marsh house in the background. The house seems large and foreboding. This helps create an air of suspense with the audience who already have heard about the woman in black. This happens again when the actor approaches the door to the playroom whilst the music plays. Similarly, the actors in The Fear of the unknown create tension whilst approaching the house by talking quietly and discuss the house in their ghost story. The curse of the Woman in Black is similar to the curse placed on the house where a girl died many years ago. Many other people tell the story of the woman in black. The actor isnt superstitious so ignores them. He is lucky to escape with his life. In the fear of the unknown Stacey warns Sadie about the curse in the house where the girl died, Sadie believes the story but then still goes in the house, and doesnt return. This could also be compared to in the Crucible where the suspicion of witchcraft underlies everything. In the beginning of the play many people didnt even have suspicion of witches. Though the idea there were witches living within a community ate away at the people until people died. Many innocent people ended up hanging for witchcraft. The imagination of characters in the play we performed added to the tension created. This occurred frequently during the piece, for example when Charlie and Sadie appear at the door to Staceys party Stacey looks Sadie up and down. Sadie is instantly terrified of Stacey even though this is normal behaviour in her characters case. The same thing happens in Blue Remembered Hills when the siren goes to signal that a prisoner of war has escaped. Every noise sounds like the war prisoner approaching them and all the children believe the prisoner of war would kill them. You can also compare it to the Crucible where everyone suspects everyone else to be witches, and everyone turns on everybody else causing more havoc. To some extent this also happens in The Woman in Black as the actor is met by suspicious and hostile reactions when he attends the ladies funeral. Also everybody in the village believes in The Woman in Black and her terrible curse, this means all the characters would be on edge. In conclusion, I think our drama performance went well, our preparation could have been better but we all had different school activities on, which made it hard to rehearse. Near to the end of our rehearsals we threw one member of our cast out. This put us at a disadvantage but meant we worked better as a group in the end as we were all striving for a common goal. Our original ideas included; Bullying and the consequences of bullying, Relationships, and problems that could never be solved. We decided to work on the events leading up to an unnecessary death.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
A Study Of Anwar Ibrahim Introduction Anwar Ibrahim is without a doubt one of the most influential politician ever to emerge after our nation`s Independence Day in 1957.Without any sufficient political background he struggles through the political period during his University life. Although not famous at that time, his social, political and economical ideas gained a rapid support from the community when he became the Deputy Prime Minister in 1993. His involvement in politics was a success, with his ideology being accepted by the community in a great variety from the aspect of social to politics. Anwar Ibrahim was born on 10th August 1947 in a small village on the mainland in Sungai Bakap, Seberang Prai and was raised in Cherok ToKun.He received his early education in Sekolah Melayu Cherok ToKun and Sekolah Rendah Stowell, Bukit Mertajam, one of the renown primary school in Penang. Anwar Ibrahim was raised in a comfortable middle class family with his father, Ibrahim Abdul Rahman who was a porter in a hospital and his mom, Che Yan, a housewife. However, both his parent got involved in politics when, his father became a politician and retired as a Parliamentary Secretary for the Ministry of Health. Similarly his mother also joined the UMNO. After finishing his high school in 1967, he enrolled his secondary education in Malay College Kuala Kangsar (MCKK) till 1966.during his period MCKK, he actively involved himself in interschool debate competitions and was subsequently elected as the students` president prior to his achievements and reputations in MCKK. Anwar pursued Malay Studies in one of Malaysias top University, University Malaya. In University Malaya, Anwars potential as a politician leader became obvious. He became the President of Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia (PKPIM).At the same time he was also the President of Malay Language Society. In University Malaya, Anwar gained his reputation and support by involving himself fiercely in defending the Malay community and the Muslims during the black days, 13th May 1969. One of the most daring act he had done during the racial war was, joining forces with Dr.Mahathir Mohamad in critising Tunku Abdul Rahman ruling who was the Prime Minister at that time. Since then, Anwar was known as a leader who always fights for students and social rights in his university. In 1971, he graduated in University Malaya by receiving the Ijazah Sarjana Muda Sastera. At the end of the year, the Muslim Youth movement of Malaysia was founded and Anwar became the first president. The Muslim Youth movement by Anwar proved to be one of the most influential societies when Anwar successfully formed a group of potential leaders who implies the teaching of Islam in daily life as well in leadership. His quality as a leader for this society was even approved and appreciated by the President of Pakistan, Zia Ul-Haq. The 1970s period is well known for its economical crisis in Malaysia due to the decrease in rubber price. Anwar saw his opportunity to solve the problem and gain more support, therefore, he rushed to solve the poverty issue in Baling. He leaded the anti poverty riot in 1974 which has landed him a punishment in ISA without trial where he spent almost two years in Kamunting detention center. In the year 1982, the supporters were astonished by the news saying that Anwar was stepping into the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO). This is because he was a organisation which is also known as Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM) during that year too. It is known as the most organized force in Islamic revivalism in Malaysia. Meanwhile, United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) was lead by Tun Dr Mahathir bin Mohamad in the year 1981. Anwars involvement in defending the rights and justice of the society made the UMNO to set an eye on him. The UMNO sees him as a potential leader and soon, he was brought in the political party. In 1982, Anwar became the parliamentary speaker for Permatang Pauh. Later, he was designated as the Deputy Prime Minister. Anwar Ibrahim was a potential leader who has the ability and power to influence and affect human behaviour and accomplished mission. Due to his leadership qualities, he obtained a lot of support from the public. This was the main factor Anwar was elected as the president of the National Union of Malaysian Muslim Students from the year 1968 to 1971. In 1983, Anwar became the Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports. He also held the position of Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Education and finally as the Minister of Finance in 1991. In the 1990s, Anwars relationship with Prime Minister, Dr.Mahathir Mohammed had begun to deteriorate. 1990s witnessed the downfall of Anwar, Anwar was framed and claimed to be involved in many foul play in politics such as corruption. He was alleged under nepotism and cronyism in 1999 and was sentenced to prison for six years. In the year 2000, he was sentenced for another nine years for a sodomy case. After his release, Anwar won the Permatang Pauh by-election in 2008.This marks the rise of a politician after all the struggles he went through. Anwar Ibrahim is a very influential man. He is known to have numerous connections with various politicians in different countries. He too, took part in a lot of uprising political activities. Anwar Ibrahim : The Rise The first stage as we can see began during his years at the University of Malaya. He was the president in many societies. As we can see, he was the president of the Malay Language Society University (PBMUM). Persatuan Bahasa Melayu Universiti Malaya (Malay for University of Malaya Malay Language Society) (PBMUM) is a Malay language, literature and culture oriented student body that has played an active role in the development of the modern Malay language in Malaysia and Singapore. It is marked as one of the most influential bodies in history of language development in Malaysia. The mission of PBMUM is committed towards the development of the Malay culture and language. The core of PBMUMs principle in 1954 was to persuade the Malayan government to recognise the Malay language as its national language. So, by recognising PBMUMs voice and struggle, the Majlis Undangan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu (Malayan Council) finally agreed on to make the Malay language as Malayas national language on 31 march 1995. PBMUM believes that it represents the voice of the people. PBMUM stands strongly against racism and upholds the view that its primary principle is in the development of the nation. Anwar, as the president of PBUM, had championed the implementation of Malay as the national language of our nation. By the time he completed his university studies, Anwar was already a popular national figure actively pursuing the reform agenda. He formed the Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia (ABIM) in 1971. It is to promote and uphold the principles of moderate Islam and to campaign for moral uplifting and social justice. After Anuar had been completed his study in university, he holds many ministerial post. He also had been married to Wan Azizah Wan Ismail. They also have 6 children, Nurul Izzah Anwar Ehsan Anwar Nurul Nuha Anwar and 3 others. In the year 1982, the supporters were astonished by the news saying that Anwar was stepping into the United Malays National Organization (UMNO). Anwar was invited to join the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) in 1982 by Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad. Anwar has also been highly engaged in the international arena. He has been a strong advocate for dialogue among civilizations and has worked tirelessly towards the ideals of the mutual coexistence of civilizations and the interplay of different social, cultural, and spiritual ideas. Between 1995 and 1998, he organized a series of conferences on the Asian Renaissance, aimed at crossing geo-political barriers between societies and nations and creating political structures to promote dialogue across cultures. His first posts in the government were as the Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports in 1983. After that, in 1984 he headed the agriculture ministry before becoming Minister of Education in 1986. By then, speculation was rife about Anwars ascent to the Deputy Prime Ministers position as it was a commonly-occurring phenomenon in Malaysia for the Education Minister to assume the position of Deputy PM in the near future. Anwar introduced numerous pro-Malay policies in the national school curriculum when he was in office as Education Minister. He wanted to make many changes in education system, for example one of the major changes that he did was to rename the national language from Bahasa Malaysia to Bahasa Melayu. However, the changes were criticized by Non-Malays. It was because, they had thought this move would cause the younger generation to be detached from the national language, since they would attribute it to being something that belongs to the Malays and not to Malaysians. Furthermore in 1991, he had been appointed as Minister of Finance. In 1993, he became Mahathirs Deputy Prime Minister after winning the Deputy Presidency of UMNO against Ghafar Baba. Because of that, Anwar had been accused at using large cash payments to win support. To secure his position as deputy president of UMNO, Anwar was alleged to have resorted to money politics. Anwars followers were seen by foreign journalists handing out packets of money to acquire support of UMNO division leaders. The followers, after a brief interview, are said to be working under Anwars instructions. Anwar was being groomed to succeed Tun Mahathir as Prime Minister, and frequently eluded in public to his son-father relationship with Tun Mahathir. So, Tun Mahathir appointed Anwar to be acting Prime Minister while he took a two-month holiday in early 1997. However, the relationship with Mahathir had begun to deteriorate, towards the end of the 1990s. It also triggered by their conflicting views on the governance of the country. In Mahathirs absence, Anwar had independently taken radical steps to improve the countrys governing mechanisms which were in direct conflict with Mahathirs capitalist policies. Issues such as how Malaysia would respond to a financial crisis were often at the forefront of this conflict. Mahathir angered when Anwars frontal attack against what he described as the widespread culture of nepotism and cronyism within UMNO. It shows that as did his attempts to dismantle the protectionist policies that Mahathir had set up. Cronyism was identified by Anwar as a major cause of corruption and misappropriation of funds in the country. The events of late 1998 marked the beginning of Anwars descent within UMNO and his subsequent ouster from the party and from Malaysian politics. Asian Financial Crisis occurred in 1997. During that period Anwar, in his capacity as finance minister, supported the International Monetary Fund (IMF) plan for recovery. An austerity package slashed government spending by 18%, cut ministerial salaries and deferred major investment projects were also instituted by him. Large-scale infrastructure development projects known as mega projects were set back as well, despite being a cornerstone of Tun Mahathirs plans for developing the nation. , Anwar declared: There is no question of any bailout although many Malaysian companies faced the threat of bankruptcy. The banks will be allowed to protect themselves and the government will not interfere. Anwar advocated a free market approach, sympathetic to foreign investment and trade liberalization, whereas Mahathir favored currency and foreign investment controls, blaming unchecked speculation by currency speculators like George Soros for the shrinking economy. There is disagreement among economists whether Anwars policies would have been more or less successful than Mahathirs. The Malaysian economy had plummeted to its lowest level yet since the recession of the early-1980s, so by the time Mahathir decided to impose currency controls and preventive measures to keep hedge funds in check Anwar had been named as the Asian of the Year. in 1998 Newsweek magazine. However, in that year, matters between Anwar Ibrahim and Tun Mahathir came to a head around the time of the quadrennial UMNO General Assembly. It would initiate a debate on cronyism and nepotism had been given noticed by The Youth wing of UMNO, headed by Anwars associate, Ahmad Zahid Hamidi. The response was swift, as Tun Mahathir issued lists of cronies who had benefited from government share allocations and privatizations. Anwar and Zahid, along with several of Anwars other allies also included in the lists. Anwars father and his two brothers are showed to have received shares allocated by the government for the bumiputra. The shares amounted to an amount of about more than 7.1 million units in three companies held by his father Datuk Ibrahim Abdul Rahman and his brothers, Farizan and Marzukhi. On 2 May 1998, Dato Ibrahim Abdul Rahman, owned 250,000 shares of Pengkalen Holdings Berhad and 3,790500 on Nissan Industrial Oxygen Incorporated. Farizon owned 250,000 shares of Pengkalen Holdings Berhad. Marzukhi owned 2,800,000 shares in Penas Corporation. In the list, Datuk Ibrahim Abdul Rahman owned 2,000,000 shares in Industrial Oxygen Incorporated Bhd on 1993. In 1998, Anwar was also chairman of the Development Committee of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. During his tenure he strongly endorsed the initiatives of debt cancellation and reprieve for poor countries, particularly those in Africa. Anwar was awarded the Presidential Medal by Georgetown University, USA, and an honorary doctorate by the Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines because of his contributions, in 1996. In 1993, shortly after becoming finance minister, Euromoney named him as one of the top four finance ministers; in 1996, Asiamoney named him Finance Minister of the Year. Anwar has held lecturing positions at St. Anthonys College at Oxford and at the School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University since 2004. He was also a Distinguished Visiting Professor in the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. Anwar is a consultant to the World Bank in the areas of governance and accountability and was also appointed as honorary president of the London-based group, Accountability in March 2009. He is chairman of the board for the Foundation for the Future and also serves as an adviser to the Peoples Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) in Malaysia. He is an internationally renowned speaker on the subjects of democracy, freedom, governance, Islam and democracy, and the need for accountability. In November 2006, Anwar made a public statement indicating that he would run for Parliament in 2008, after his disqualification is expired. Since he was released from the prison, Anwar has been critical about our government policies, which provides the affirmative action for the Bumiputeras. One of his quotes policies is units of housing and initial public offerings that must be met. In the year of 1997, Malaysia had to undergo an economic crisis which was known as the Asian Economic Crisis. During this turbulent period, Anwar Ibrahim was holding the post as Minister of Finance of Malaysia. As a capable leader, Anwar had taken an action by introducing a series of economic reforms and austerity measure in order to overcome the economic crisis. However, this action was intensified a great negative feedback because Anwar was nominated for the controversial amendments for the Anti Corruption Act. This act was being notorious to raise the power in Anti Corruption Agency. On the other hand, the Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammad sacked Anwar from all his post, due to the unsatisfactory towards these measurements. As a result, this incident had led to protest from the public and finally formed the Reformasi movement. At first, the Gerakan Reformasi or Reformation started when Anwar`s wife, Dr Wan Azizah formed Parti Keadilan Nasional (National Justice Party), on 4th April 1999. The party was then joined by the Democratic Action Party (DAP), the Malaysian Peoples Party (PRM) and the Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) completing a fully fledged opposition coalition known as, Barisan Alternatif (Alternative Front) to take on the ruling Barisan Nasional (National Front) coalition in the 1999 general elections. For which, in the election held that year, he party entered the campaign with many of its key leaders under arrest and as a result saw it winning only five parliamentary seats in the elections despite gaining 11.67% of the total votes cast. The Barisan Alternatif as a whole gained 40.21% of the total votes cast with PAS gaining 27 seats and DAP gaining ten seats. After the elections, there were negotiations between Parti Keadilan and Parti Rakyat Malaysia (PRM) regarding a possible merger of force. Despite some opposition in both parties to the move, a 13 point Memorandum of Understanding was eventually signed by the two parties on 5 July 2002. On 3 August 2003, the new merged entity was officially launched and assumed its current name. (Current main/head advisor of PKR) Anwar Ibrahim controversial issues The first issues that that involve Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim was in 1999 when he was charged under the corruption case. He was sentenced to six years in prison. At the time, Dato Seri Mahathir bin Mohammad was the Prime Minister of Malaysia. Dato Seri Mahathir bin Mohammad is the people who expose the Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim activity and his colony. Then, Dato Seri Mahathir Mohammad was direct the Public Prosecutor to charged Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim under the case of corruption. According to the special branch of the police, Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim also involve in illegal activity. Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim was arrested by the police on charged of receiving bribes from the other people using his power as the minister and also the deputy of prime minister at that time. Then the case was bring to the court and the case is the most controversional issues in Malaysia. Then, the case of Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim was bring to the trial. The trial was held at the Federal Court. The chief judge at that time was Tun Haji Mohamed Salleh bin Abbas. Tun Salleh bin Abbas was the Lord President of the Federal Court of Malaya. Because of the constitutional crisis he was dismissed from his post during the 1988 Malaysian Constitutional crisis. At that time, the executive branch tried to interfere with the judicial branch system. Dato` Seri Anwar Ibrahim`s second controversial issues was the case of sodomy. At that particular time, the case is look very weird because it is impossible that he is the homosexual. In 1999, Anwar brought legal action against Prime Minister Mahathir for defamation for allegedly uttering accusations of immoral acts and calling Anwar a homosexual at a news conference in Malaysia. The police were instructed to investigate the veracity of the claims that Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim was the people who make the sodomy. Then, the trial began and Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim was charged with sodomy. He found guilty and was convicted to 15 years in prison sentence. This is because the person who was charged was the Deputy Prime Minister and Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim also has his own followers. This started a crisis in the government. At this time also, a lot of riot was held. This is because the people were not satisfied with the government who tried to interfere with the judicial system at that time. (Anwar Ibrahim was released from jail in the year 2004, Federal court acquitted Anwar and Sukma of the sodomy charge. However one of the three judges, Abdul Hamid Mohamad said he was inclined to believe that the alleged incident at Tivoli Villa did take place) Other issues, that hit Dato` Seri Anwar Ibrahim was charged for a second sodomy trial. This time, Dato` Seri Anwar Ibrahim was charged because of the case sodomy his former private assistant who is Saiful Bukahri. This case was calamity the public because this is the second charged on the same person but different victim. This case also has many doubts about the evidence presented by the prosecute officer evidence presented by the prosecute officer evidence presented by the prosecute officer. In this case also, the people involved were mostly of the politically active individuals. So, it can be a political technique to not trust the people who involve in the case. If the person is involved this case, he or she would be a political person, his reputation in the politic will go down and the people will not trust anymore about him. This is maybe only the political propaganda. Besides that, the competitions between the political parties nowadays make the authority lose their power. This is maybe the reason why is this particular thing happening now days. The other issues that Involve Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim is about the Malaysian Defence System. The government said that Dato` Seri Anwar Ibrahim was an America spy in Malaysia. Anwar Ibrahim`s Contributions In Umno Anwar Ibrahim joining the United Malays National Organization known as UMNO now days that lead by Dato Seri Mahathir Bin Mohammad, who had become the Prime Minister in 1981. Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim moved up the political ranks very quickly and his first ministerial office was in charged by him is the Minister of Culture, Youth, and Sports in 1983. When he held the post, he administered the government well. At that time also, he had numerous supporters with him. After that, he was the person who headed the Ministry of Agriculture in 1984 and he moved his post to the Minister of Education on 1986. At that time, he made lots of changes in the Malaysian education system. He also made the education system more sophisticated and systematically advanced. During that period, he wanted to make sure that all citizens will be able to get and enjoy a proper education for the benefit of everyone. Then, we have heard about speculations regarding Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim holding the post of the Deputy Prime Minister and it was commonly occurring phenomenon in Malaysia or Minister of Education to assume the position of Deputy Prime Minister in the near future. During his time as Education Minister, Anwar introduced numerous pro-Malay policies in the national school curriculum. One of the major changes that he did was to rename the national language from Bahasa Malaysia to Bahasa Melayu. Non-Malays criticized this move as it would cause the younger generation to be detached from the national language, since they would attribute it to being something that belongs to the Malays and not to Malaysians. In 1991, Dato` Seri Anwar Ibrahim was appointed Minister of Finance. When he became the Minister of Finance, the government people says that he takes o lat of the government money for his private usage. In 1993, he became Dato` Seri Mahathir Mohammad Deputy Prime Minister after winning the Deputy Presidency of UMNO against Ghafar Baba. There was a report on Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim using large cash payments to win support. Dato Seri Anwar Ibrahim is alleged to have resorted to money politics to secure his position as deputy president of UMNO. Anwar followers were witnessed by even foreign journalists handing out packets of money to acquire support of UMNO division leaders. These followers are said to be working under Anwars instructions. Dato` Seri Anwar Ibrahim had a lot of followers and he could achieve many things. Dato` Seri Anwar Ibrahim at that time had a lot of influence. Towards the end of the 1990s, however, the relationship with Tun Mahathir had begun to deteriorate, triggered by their conflicting views on governance. In Mahathirs absence, Anwar had independently taken radical steps to improve the countrys governing mechanisms which were in direct conflict with Mahathirs capitalist policies. Issues such as how Malaysia would respond to a financial crisis were often at the forefront of this conflict. Anwars frontal attack against what he described as the widespread culture of nepotism and cronyism within UMNO (and the ruling coalition as a whole) angered Mahathir, as did his attempts to dismantle the protectionist policies that Mahathir had set up. Cronyism was identified by Anwar as a major cause of corruption and misappropriation of funds in the country. The events of late-1998 marked the beginning of Anwars descent within UMNO and his subsequent ouster from the party and from Malaysian politics. Dark period of Anwar Ibrahim Dark period of Anwar Ibrahim was started on 2 September, when Prime Minister Mahathir dismissed Anwar from the government. He was no longer a deputy prime minister and also finance minister. He was also expelled from UMNO. Before that, the Youth wing of UMNO, headed by Anwars associate Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, gave notice that it would initiate a debate on cronyism and nepotism. The response was swift, as Prime Minister Mahathir issued lists of cronies who had benefited from government share allocations and privatizations. The list included Anwar and Zahid, along with several of Anwars other allies. Anwars trial and subsequent conviction were widely discredited by the international community. Many world leaders called for his release from prison. On September 29, 1998 Anwar appeared in court and pleaded innocent to charges of corruption and sodomy. The black eye was explained by Mahathir Mohamad and Rahim Noor as being self-inflicted and caused by pressing a glass over his eyes. Only after a Royal Commission was convened did Rahim Noor admit that he had administered the beating to Anwar. Rahim apologized for the incident in August 2005. Rahim Noor was eventually charged for the assault and was given a two-month prison sentence and fined 2,000 ringgit. In 1999, he was sentenced to six years in prison for corruption, and in 2000, to another nine years for sodomy. The police were instructed to investigate the veracity of the claims that he was being a homosexual guy. Anwar was charged with sodomy, convicted and given a 15 year prison sentence. Anwars trial and subsequent conviction were widely discredited by the international community. Many world leaders called for his release from prison. In 1999, Anwar brought legal action against Prime Minister Mahathir for defamation for allegedly uttering accusations of immoral acts and calling Anwar a homosexual at a news conference in Malaysia. However, this verdict was partially overturned in 2004, resulting in Anwars release from prison. A panel of three judges of the Federal Court (Malaysias highest court) overturned the sodomy conviction by 2 to 1, finding contradictions in the prosecutions case on 2, September 2004. After Anwar released from prison, he was reportedly suffering from serious back problem. His family said was the result of the beating by the ex-police chief. the UMNO-owned newspaper, the New Straits Times, alleged that the injuries had actually been caused by a fall from a horse in 1993 during Anwars tenure as deputy prime minister. His wife had argued that during his imprisonment that he required treatment for his condition at a clinic in Germany. The government refused, claiming that such treatment was readily available in Malaysia, offering medical treatment if necessary. However, in September 2004, after the Federal Court quashed his conviction for sodomy, Anwar was free to travel to Munich for back surgery. On August 28, 2008, Tan Sri Pandikar Amin Mulia. formally declared Anwar, the leader of the 3-party opposition alliance. Anwar continued to attack Najib first day as prime minister, stating he found inconsistencies in the latters decision to release 13 Internal Security Act detainees. He said as long as the ISA existed, Barisan Nasional (National Front) could still detain citizens at will. Anwar has already missed several deadlines he himself set for the transfer of power, each of which came and went: the most recent was Tuesday 16 September 2008. Deputy Prime Minister Najib Razak chose that day to initiate a broadband internet program Anwar opposes, saying that he had not doubted that the government would still be in office on 16 September. Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi too pointed out that Anwar had missed his own deadline, and dismissed his claim to have secured the defection of 30 MPs. On 24 October 2008, Anwar admitted problems with his stalled bid to topple UMNOs majority, saying that Pakatan Rakyat is running out of options to create a majority. His credibility among ordinary Malaysians has been somewhat dented after Sept 16 and the new promise of forming the Government has not generated the sort of anticipation or excitement as before. Media within the country have taken an increasingly hostile view towards Anwars protestations and failed threats to assemble a majority government. Anwar Ibrahim has voiced support to allow the former leader of the Communist Party of Malaya, Chin Peng to be allowed to return to Malaysia. However, his remarks have been slammed by UMNO leaders who called them regrettable to accusation as a plot to gain support of the Chinese community. On June 29, 2008, an online news portal Malaysia Kini, reported that an aide of Anwar Ibrahim had lodged a police report claiming that he had been sodomised by Anwar. The news has since been updated with reports that SMS messages are being distributed claiming that the person who made the report is Anwars aide, Mohd Saiful Bukhari Azlan, who was arrested and allegedly forced to make a false confession. The same text message also claimed the possibility of Anwar being arrested. Malaysian police issued an arrest warrant on July 15 for Anwar Ibrahim, and investigating Officer Jude Pereira signed and issued the letter requiring Anwar to appear at a police station for questioning before Wednesday at 2 p.m. local time. Anwar has said that the possibility of a prison sentence as a result of these allegations could be seen as an attempt to remove leadership and transference of power issues caused by his growing support and by-election victories. He also reaffirms his innocence and cites proof in the form of medical reports. Conspiracy to Bring Anwar Ibrahim down Financial Crisis: During the year of 1997 saw Malaysias economy being affected by the Asian Financial Crisis. Anwar Ibrahim, as the Finance Minister during that period, in his capacity as a Finance Minister, has taken action to support the International Monetary Fund (IMF) plan for recovery. He also instituted an austerity package that slashed the government spending by 18% by cutting down ministerial salaries and deferred major investment projects. Not only that, large-scale infrastructure development projects known as mega projects were set back as well. Anwar had advocated a free market approach, sympathetic to foreign investment and trade liberalization, whereas Mahathir favored currency and foreign investment control, blaming unchecked speculation by currency speculators for the shrinking economy. Anwar Ibrahim has also instituted a series of economic reforms and austerity measures in response. These actions were exacerbated when he tabled controversial amendments to the Anti Corrupt Act that sought to increase the powers of the Anti Corruption Agency. Dr. Mahathir, who was the Prime Minister at that time, disagreed with the measures taken by Anwar and had ultimately sacked Anwar from all of his posts and positions. In my own opinion, there is a great disagreement among economist whe
Friday, September 20, 2019
Strategic Human Resource Management In Hyundai Strategic human resource management is the process of linkingthe human resource function with the strategic objectives of the organization in order to improve performance. If a global company is to function successfully, strategies at different levels need to inter-relate.Ã An organizations [human resource management] policies and practices must Ã ¬Ã t with its strategyÃ in its competitive environment and with the immediate business conditions that it faces.Ã The [human resources-business strategy] alignment cannot necessarily beÃ characterized in the logical and sequential way suggested by some writers; rather, the design of an HR system complex and iterative process 1.2.The Purpose of strategic Human Resource Management activities in Hyundai Over the past decade, HR researchers and practitioners have focused theirÃ attentionon other important questions. First, what determines whether an organization adoptsa strategic approach to HRM, and how is HR strategy formulated? Of interest is whichorganizations are most likely to adopt a strategic approach to HRM. Is there, forexample, a positive association with a given setÃ of external and internal characteristicsor contingencies and the adoption of SHRM? Another area of interest concerns thepolicies and practices making up different HR strategies. Is it possible to identify acluster or bundle of HRÃ practices with different strategic competitive models? Finally,much research productivity in recent years has been devoted to examining the rela-tionship between different clusters of HR practices and organizational performance.Does HR strategy really matter? For organizational practitioners who are looking forways to gain a competitive advantage, the implication of HR strateg ic choices forcompany performance is certainly the key factor. 1.3.contributions of strategic Human Resource Management to the achievement of Hyundai Motors Objectives Management PolicyIn 2000, Hyundai Motor and Kia Motors merged to form the Hyundai Automotive Group and implemented a Ãâhorizontal management system in September 25 of that year. The horizontal managementsystem gives departmental teams extensive power to carry out corporate policies and implement their own action plans based on those policies. The horizontal management system is guided by three principles: 1) Trust-Based Management 2) Site-Intensive Management 3) Transparent Management. These principles, together with the environmental policy mentioned later in this report, give direction to the management strategies that drive our business. In 2003, we established four objectives to be met in the mid- to long-term strategies: 1) enhance product value, 2) establish a global production system, 3) increase brand power, 4) improve environmental management systems. 2.1.the business factors that underpin human resource planning: According to company officials, Hyundais six assembly plants with a yearly production capacity of 1.65 million vehicles, were operating at only 40 percent of their capacity. In May, 1998, Hyundai reacted to this grim situation by announcing plans to lay off 27 percent of its 46,000 workforce in South Korea and to cut pay bonuses and benefits in a bid to save 230 billion won. Unfortunately for the management of the company, Hyundai had one of the most powerful and militant unions. The decision of the company to lay off workers sparked off agitations not only in Hyundai but in other companies too. The unions were particularly offended at the governments approval of Hyundais decision. In a demonstration in Ulsan, where Hyundai has its biggest automobile plant, 32,000 employees participated in rallies. All across South Korea almost 1,20,000 employees from about 125 companies participated in demonstrations against Hyundai and the governments decision. The government had to deploy nearly 20,000 riot police to control the demonstrators 2.2. assessment of human resorce requirements Hyundai Motor Co., formed in 1967, was a part of the large South Korean Chaebol the Hyundai Group until the group split in September 2000. In the last four decades, Hyundai managed to establish itself all over the world as a company producing reliable, technically sound and stylish automobiles.Ã In the 90s, the company started aggressive overseas expansion programs. By the late 90s, when Southeast Asian crisis struck, the company like all the other chaebols, faced serious financial problems. To survive, it had to cut its labor force. The company offered various retirement schemes, unpaid leave for two years, etc. to workers, and expressed its inability to support its entire workforce in the slack period. The unions refused to compromise and the management too held its ground. Finally, the government intervened to force a negotiated settlement between the union and the management. 2.3. Human Resorce Plan in Hyundai Hyundai Motor Co., formed in 1967, was a part of the large South Korean Chaebol the Hyundai Group until the group split in September 2000. In the last four decades, Hyundai managed to establish itself all over the world as a company producing reliable, technically sound and stylish automobiles. In the 90s, the company started aggressive overseas expansion programs. By the late 90s, when Southeast Asian crisis struck, the company like all the other chaebols, faced serious financial problems. To survive, it had to cut its labor force. The company offered various retirement schemes, unpaid leave for two years, etc. to workers, and expressed its inability to support its entire workforce in the slack period. The unions refused to compromise and the management too held its ground. Finally, the government intervened to force a negotiated settlement between the union and the management. 2.4.Human Resource Plan contribute to meet Hyundai objectives:: Company strategies and Government policies each arise from the decision-makers views of their own bargaining strengths and those of other relevant actors, as well as their assessments of opportunity costs and their willingness to forego any dealings with the other party. Among the many actors that are relevant to policymaking, TNCs constitute a particularly significant group, since they affect employment, generate and distribute income, alter the balance of payments, assist in regional development, create technology and impinge on other policy areas.Governments are crucial in affecting company strategies, since they set the rules of the game. These conditions lead to the bargaining relationship between TNCs and Governments. That relationship can be viewed as a jointmaximizing (or mini-max) problem as in the theory of games with each side seeking to pursue its goals constrained by its resources, its dependence on the other party and its relationships with other actors. 3.1. The Purpose of Human Resource Management Policies In Ashok Leyland. Human resource management policies are vital for organizations that are serious about resolving personnel issues and finding hr solutions. HRM policies are intended to help maximize the effectiveness of your Human Resources function.Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ HR should ensure that HRM policy you have consistent, well-written legal policies and procedures. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ HRM policy should provide hr advices for the organizations needing help with specific HR-related issues Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Individuals and organizations who are serious about human resources should understand the bottom-line importance of job evaluation, job descriptions and effective policies.Ã Types of HRM Policies: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Attendance Policy Attendance Policy Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Recruitment Policy Recruitment PolicyÃ Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Leave of Absence Policy Leave of Absence Policy Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Performance Planning and Evaluation Performance Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Probationary Period Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Compensation Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Compensatory Leave Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Overtime Leave Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Annual Leave Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Educational Leave, 3.2. The Impact of regulatory requirements on human resource policies in Ashok Leyland: The Human Resources regulatory compliance arena continues to be a myriad of ever changing state and federal mandates.Ã The cost of ensuring compliance continues to climb with each new regulation however, in many cases, small and medium sized businesses simply cannot keep up. AlphaStaff provides Human Resources Regulatory Compliance services that control costs, systematically address key compliance issues, and provides legal liability protection. AlphaStaffs unique approach developsÃ a Human Resources regulatoryÃ compliance foundation and tailorsÃ it to meet your business needs. Conclussion: HR AuditÃ Unsure if you are in regulatory compliance? We will review your hiring practices, record keeping, policies and past practices and make recommendations. HR Posters, Forms Ã HandbooksÃ We will supply regulatory compliance posters, provide forms (hard copies and online) and develop customized employee handbooks thatÃ ensureÃ your compliance. Hiring AssistanceÃ We will assist with job descriptions,Ã interview training,Ã handle background and drug screening and post your jobs. AdministrationÃ Tired of records retention? Let us do it all personnel files, verifications of employment, unemployment responses, FMLA and your EEOC reports and charge answers. HR Consulting ServicesÃ Call us with your employee issues and we will provide creative solutions that best fit your needs but maintain your compliant Human Resources foundation. TrainingÃ We can provide online or classroom training on Human Resources business issues ranging from Diversity to Management Training to Dealing with the Difficult Customer. EPLIÃ You will be protected from discrimination, wrongful termination and harassment suits through our premier Employment Practices Liability Insurance coverage. EAPÃ Employee Assistance Programs that provide counseling and guidance to your employees available 24/7 through an 800 hotline. REVIEWING HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: 4.1.Analyse the impact of organizational structure on the management of human resources: Organizational design and structure.Ã As we mentioned earlier, modifying the organizations basic structure may be a way of changing the existing norms, and hence the culture. For example, a culture of mistrust between the leaders and the members of an organization may be exacerbated by a line structure that discourages vertical communication. Organizational systems and procedures.Ã The simplest definition of culture is thats the way we do things around here. Routines or procedures can become so embedded that they become part of the culture, and changing the culture necessitates changing those routines. We can all think of organizations where a weekly or monthly meeting takes on a life of its own, becomes more formalized, lengthy, and elaborate, and becomes the only way information moves within the organization. Changing the culture to improve communication may only be possible by changing the meeting procedures or eliminating the meetings altogether. Design of physical space, facades, and buildings.Ã The impact of the design of buildings on culture can easily be illustrated by considering the executive perks in an organization. Which organization do you think will have a more open and participative culture, one where top executives have reserved parking spaces, top floor offices, a special elevator and an executive dining room, or one where the executive offices are not separated from the rest of the company and executives park and eat in the same place as their employees? Stories about important events and people.Ã This is a way that culture is perpetuated in an organization, in that it helps define and solidify the organizations identity. By what events and stories they emphasize, leaders influence that identity. Formal statements of organizational philosophy, creeds, and charts.Ã This is the way leaders most often try and influence their organizations, and encompasses the vision or mission statement and statements of the organizations (or the leaders) values and philosophy. By themselves, however, formal statements will have little effect on the organizations culture. They must be linked to actions to affect culture. 4.2. Analyse the impact of organizational Culture on the management of human resources: Why is culture so important to an organization? Edgar Schein, an MIT Professor of Management and author ofÃ Organizational Culture and Leadership: A Dynamic View,Ã suggests that an organizations culture develops to help it cope with its environment. Today, organizational leaders are confronted with many complex issues during their attempts to generate organizational achievement in VUCA environments. A leaders success will depend, to a great extent, upon understanding organizational culture. Schein contends that many of the problems confronting leaders can be traced to their inability to analyze and evaluate organizational cultures. Many leaders, when trying to implement new strategies or a strategic plan leading to a new vision, will discover that their strategies will fail if they are inconsistent with the organizations culture. A CEO, SES, political appointee, or flag officer who comes into an organization prepared to shake the place up and institute sweeping changes, often experiences resistance to changes and failure. Difficulties with organizational transformations arise from failures to analyze an organizations existing culture. WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE? There is no single definition for organizational culture. The topic has been studied from a variety of perspectives ranging from disciplines such as anthropology and sociology, to the applied disciplines of organizational behavior, management science, and organizational communication. Some of the definitions are listed below: A set of common understandings around which action is organized, . . . finding expression in language whose nuances are peculiar to the group (Becker and Geer 1960). A set of understandings or meanings shared by a group of people that are largely tacit among members and are clearly relevant and distinctive to the particular group which are also passed on to new members (Louis 1980). A system of knowledge, of standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating and acting . . . that serve to relate human communities to their environmental settings (Allaire and Firsirotu 1984). The deeper level of basic assumptions and beliefs that are: learned responses to the groups problems of survival in its external environment and its problems of internal integration; are shared by members of an organization; that operate unconsciously; and that define in a basic taken -for-granted fashion in an organizations view of itself and its environment (Schein 1988). Any social system arising from a network of shared ideologies consisting of two components: substance-the networks of meaning associated with ideologies, norms, and values; and forms-the practices whereby the meanings are expressed, affirmed, and communicated to members (Trice and Beyer 1984). . 4.3.the effectiveness of human resources management is monitored in organisation: Cultural forms function as the linking mechanism by which networks of understanding develop among employees. (Trice, 1988) The cultural forms shown in the table on pages 293-94 act as a medium for communicating ideologies, values, and norms. Cultural forms enable leaders to transmit messages about desirable culture to influence thinking and ways of behaving. Cultural forms also address the emotional aspects of organizations that are commonly referred to as cohesion or camaraderie. Organizational scholars Janice Beyer and Harrison Trice elaborate on this point: Cultural forms not only aid sensemaking through the meanings they convey; they also aid the sensemaking process through the emotional reassurances they provide that help people persist in their coping efforts. Forms provide a concrete anchoring point, even if the meaning they carry are vague and only imperfectly transmitted.Also many cultural forms involve the expression of emotion and, by this venting of emotions, help people to cope with stress. Federal agencies are replete with cultural forms that serve these purposes. However the challenges facing strategic leaders of these agencies involve creating and orchestrating cultural forms that can foster change and have longevity beyond their tenure.Cultural forms that have longevity by their nature such as rites and ceremonies reaffirm the organizations core ideologies, values and norms. 4.4. Recommendation to improve the effectiveness of human resources management in an organisation Strategic leadership needs to be transformational if it is to serve the organization. Transformational leaders must operate from a foundation of high morality and ethical practices and Culture is deep seated and difficult to change, but leaders can influence or manage an organizations culture. It isnt easy, and it cannot be done rapidly, but leaders can have an effect on culture. Schein outlines some specific steps leaders can employ: What leaders pay attention to, measure and control.Ã Something as simple as what is emphasized or measured, over time, can have an effect on an organizations culture. One example of this is an emphasis on form over substance. If leaders pay more attention to form, an organizational culture can develop where people start to believe that the substance of a recommendation is less important than the way it is presented. One can recall when more attention was paid to the format of viewgraphs used in a briefing than what was said; what we characterize as eyewash. Where do you think people will focus their effort once it becomes accepted that a slick presentation is what the leaders are looking for? How could you go about changing that aspect of the organizations culture? Consider cultural assumptions and beliefs underlying a zero defects organizational mentality. You must always be perfect; mistakes arent allowed. If this assumption reflects a dysfunctional aspect of an organizations culture, how would you go about changing that perception? Leader reactions to critical incidents and organizational crises.Ã The way leaders react to crises says a lot about the organizations values, norms and culture. Crises, by their nature, bring out the organizations underlying core values. Often, this is where rhetoric becomes apparent. Reactions to crises are normally highly visible, because everyones attention is focused on the incident or situation. Disconnects between actions and words will usually be apparent, and actions always speak louder than words. Additionally, a crisis not only brings a great deal of attention, it also generates a great deal of emotional involvement on the part of those associated with the organization, particularly if the crisis threatens the organizations survival. This increases the potential for either reinforcing the existing culture, or leading to a change in the culture. Such a crisis can provide an opportunity for a leader to influence the organizations culture in either a positive or a negative w ay. Deliberate role modeling, teaching, and coaching.Ã Nothing can take the place of leaders walking their talk. The personal example of a strategic leader can send a powerful message to the members of an organization, particularly if it is ethical and consistent. Reinforcing that example with teaching and coaching will help others to internalize the desired values. Criteria for allocation of rewards and status.Ã The consequences of behavior-what behavior is rewarded and what is punished-can significantly influence culture. If the organization reacts to new ideas by ridiculing the ideas and those who propose them, it wont take long before people believe that new ideas are not welcomed or desired. One belief of perceived organizational culture is reflected in the statement: Dont raise questions or suggest improvements, because nothing will come of it and you will just get in trouble. If you were in an organizations strategic leader, what steps could you take to alter the reward system to change this aspect of the culture? Criteria for recruitment, selection, promotion, retirement and excommunication.Ã One of the powerful ways of changing an organizations culture is through the type of people brought into, retained, and advanced in the organization. You should be able to establish a desired culture base in an organization by bringing in and advancing individuals with the values you want, and eliminating those with undesired value bases. 1. Dont oversimplify culture or confuse it with climate, values, or corporate philosophy. CultureÃ underliesÃ and largelyÃ determinesÃ these other variables. Trying to change values or climate without getting at the underlying culture will be a futile effort. 2. Dont label culture as solely a human resources (read touchy-feely) aspect of an organization, affecting only its human side. The impact of culture goes far beyond the human side of the organization to affect and influence its basic mission and goals. 3. Dont assume that the leader can manipulate culture as he or she can control many other aspects of the organization. Culture, because it is largely determined and controlled by the members of the organization, not the leaders, is different. Culture may end up controlling the leader rather than being controlled by him or her. 4. Dont assume that there is a correct culture, or that a strong culture is better than a weak one. It should be apparent that different cultures may fit different organizations and their environments, and that the desirability of a strong culture depends on how well it supports the organizations strategic goals and objectives. 5. Dont assume that all the aspects of an organizations culture are important, or will have a major impact on the functioning of the organization. Some elements of an organizations culture may have little impact on its functioning, and the leader must distinguish which elements are important, and focus on those. CONCLUDING THOUGHT An understanding of culture, and how to transform it, is a crucial skill for leaders trying to achieve strategic outcomes. Strategic leaders have the best perspective, because of their position in the organization, to see the dynamics of the culture, what should remain, and what needs transformation. This is the essence of strategic success. Refernces: Books Book Single Author. Adler, N.J. (1991).Ã International dimensions of organizational behavior. Boston: PWS-Kent Publishing Company. Book Multiple Authors, Second or Subsequent Editions. Aron, A., Aron, E.N. (1999).Ã Statistics for psychology. (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International, Inc. Chapter in Edited Book. Hartmann, L.C. (1998). The impact of trends in labour-force participation in Australia. In M. Patrickson L. Hartmann (Eds.),Ã Managing an ageing workforceÃ (3-25). Warriewood, Australia: Woodslane Pty Limited. Chapter in Edited Book, Several Volumes. Adams, J.S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.),Ã Advances in experimental social psychology(Vol. 2, 267-299). New York: Academic Press. Chapter in Edited Book Two Authors, Second or Subsequent Edition. Forteza, J.A., Prieto, J.M. (1994). Aging and work behaviour. In H.C. Triandis, D. Dunnette, L.M. Hough (Eds.),Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. (2nd ed., Vol. 4, 447-483). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Edited Book One or more Authors. Hewstone, M., Brown, R. (Eds.). (1986).Ã Contact and conflict in intergroup encounters. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd. Journals Journal Article. Kawakami, K., Dovidio, J.F. (2001). The reliability of implicit stereotyping.Ã Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(2), 212-225. Journal Article No Volume Number. Schizas, C.L. (1999). Capitalizing on a generation gap.Ã Management Review, (June), 62-63. Others Newspaper article Author Known. Alch, M.L. (2000, July). Get ready for the net generation.Ã USA Today, 129, 26-27. Newspaper Item Author Unknown. Thin blue line has no future, (2002, October 27th).Ã The Sunday Times, Perth, Western Australia, 26. On-line Article (access date is shown in square parentheses). Anderson, G.F., Hussey, P.S. (October, 1999).Ã Health and population aging: A multinational comparison. [On-line]. International Health Policy. Available http://www.cmwf.org/programs/international/aging_chartbook.asp [2003, March 4th]. Conference Proceedings. Belous, R.S., Appelbaum, E. (1988).Ã Human resource flexibility and older workers: Management and labour views. Paper presented at the Forty-first Annual Meeting of the Industrial Relations Research Association, New York. Telephone Contact. Cordery, J. (2001, November 14th). Negative items (telephone conversation). Dissertation. Daboval, J.M. (1998).Ã A comparison between baby boomer and generation X employees bases and foci of commitment.Ã Dissertation Abstracts International, University Microfilms No. AAT 98-23312. Poster Session Presentation. Finkelstein, L.M., Gonnerman, M.E.J., Johnson, B.A. (April, 1999).Ã The development of measures of age and generation identity. Paper presented at the poster session presented at the 14th annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Atlanta, GA. Magazine Article. Shoebridge, N., Ferguson, A. (1997, January 20th). Rise of the baby-boom bosses.Ã Business Review Weekly, 28-34. Annual Report. Western Australia Police Service. (1999).Ã Western Australia Police Service Annual Report 1999. Perth, Western Australia. Corporation/Institution as Author. World Bank. (1994).Ã Averting the old age crisis: Policies to protect the old and promote growth. Washington DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The Metamorphosis of Bertha in Katherine MansfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s Bliss Katherine MansfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"BlissÃ¢â¬ is quite an interesting story full of underlying meanings and themes. Upon a first reading, it seems to be a simple story of a woman who feels uncontainable bliss one day, only to have it end when she discovers her husband is having an affair. Although this is a correct interpretation, after a second reading, much more is apparent. Ã¢â¬Å"BlissÃ¢â¬ is a story of the revelation of a vibrant young woman, of criticism of society, and of sexual revolution. In order to fully comprehend the work, we see that significance comes from small details. A tree is the major symbol in this piece, and the details assist in understanding why the pear tree is so important. The method of seeing details as they occur allows readers to relate new details to those in the past. A whole and complete picture can be obtained this way with the details clearly laid out chronologically. The story opens by presenting the audience with Bertha Young, a thirty-year old woman who feels as if she is a child again as she Ã¢â¬Å"wanted to run instead of walk, to take dancing steps on and off the pavement, to bowl a hoop, to throw something up in the air and catch it again, or to stand still and laugh at--nothingÃ¢â¬âat nothing, simply (143).Ã¢â¬ As she moves down the street, a feeling of absolute bliss overcomes her. This is where the reader begins to believe that he/she will receive an account of this womanÃ¢â¬â¢s wonderful day and of something fabulous that happened to her. Quite the contrary is true, however. Bertha walks into her home, and the first negative images of the story are felt. Her dining room is described as Ã¢â¬Å"duskyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"quite chilly (143).Ã¢â¬ ... ...e fulfilled. Bertha is a woman who has no desire, and Mansfield feels sympathy for her. Bertha is, however, evolving into a feeling, sexual person as she discovers her want to be with her husband physically. The pear tree is the dominant symbol of this story. Although it shows BerthaÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality, it also shows her resilience. She is able to weather storms and still be beautiful, as is the tree. At the end of the story, the tree is cast in the light of the moon. Since it has already been discussed that the moon symbolizes truth, the moon showing on the pear tree that is still healthy, Bertha will be able to move on and survive. The tree shows that life will go on, as will Bertha, even though she has taken this devastating blow. Work Cited Mansfield, Katherine. The Short Stories of Katherine Mansfield. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1937.