Saturday, August 31, 2019
Explain how Hill and Golding present death in IÃ¢â¬â¢m the King of the Castle and Lord of the Flies respectively? Essay
Hill and Golding both utilise the techniques of symbolism, varied settings and physical death of the character to present death. Overall I think that Hill generally presents death more effectively than Golding, because she generally provides more development throughout her novel, which ultimately leads to the death of Kingshaw. Hill and Golding both use the techniques of symbolism dead stating that Ã¢â¬Å"the inside of its mouth was scarletÃ¢â¬ with the adjective Ã¢â¬Å"scarletÃ¢â¬ interesting as it has connotations of death and of blood. I think this description of the crow is also a subtle form of prolepsis as the crow is initially portrayed as a normal crow, but as Hill describes the crow further; it is evidently a symbol of death, much like Warings. What is interesting to note about the crow is that it is also described as having Ã¢â¬Å"ragged black wingsÃ¢â¬ - the word ragged could symbolise the aftermath of violence, much like KingshawÃ¢â¬â¢s exposure to violence later on in the novel and the adjective black is a symbol of death. Another aspect of symbolism regarding the crow is when the crow Ã¢â¬Å"circles over KingshawÃ¢â¬ , symbolically death looms over Kingshaw. This is comparable to the symbolism of death in Lord of the Flies where Ã¢â¬Å"The Lord of the FliesÃ¢â¬ also symbolises death: one example of this is when the Lord of the Flies states Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬â¢re going to have funÃ¢â¬ - it is a statement, rather than a question, an imperative. The Ã¢â¬Å"funÃ¢â¬ that is described refers to evil, ultimately the death of Simon. Another description of the Lord of the Flies describes that is particularly important is when Simon looks at the Lord of the Flies and sees Ã¢â¬Å"blacknessÃ¢â¬ within, a Ã¢â¬Å"blackness that spreadÃ¢â¬ . Perhaps this symbolises not only death, but death spreading throughout the island as other characters are killed. I feel this description also has significance because both Hill and Golding use Ã¢â¬Å"coloursÃ¢â¬ to symbolise death, the colour black. The authors also differ as Hills descriptions are far more graphical, for example the crow, whereas Golding is far more subtle in his description of The Lord of the Flies. I believe that Hills graphic description is more effective at portraying death, her descriptions are far more explicit but some readers may argue this to be a disadvantage as her symbols are too clichÃ ©d. I think Golding is not as effective because his descriptions are a little more implicit, and hence loses some of the value that his symbol provides in portraying death. Another way in which Hill shows death is through the use of settings. Warings is described as Ã¢â¬Å"being in full nightÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"the yew branches [Ã¢â¬ ¦] overhanging the windowsÃ¢â¬ . Hills typical gothic description to a modern reader is a clear signal of death, especially the Yew branches which also symbolise death. The Ã¢â¬Å"moonlightÃ¢â¬ suggests a sense of coldness in Warings, like a dead person for example. Warings is also described as Ã¢â¬Å"darkÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"dampÃ¢â¬ which emphasises Hills initial description of Warings. This is comparable to GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s description Ã¢â¬Å"of the unfriendly side of the islandÃ¢â¬ - a Ã¢â¬Å"place of terrorÃ¢â¬ . This is an explicit meaning, terror and death are linked. Arguably, Castle Rock is the heart of the Ã¢â¬Å"unfriendly side of the islandÃ¢â¬ , Castle Rock is described as being Ã¢â¬Å"the end of the islandÃ¢â¬ , literally the furthest away from the island once compared to paradise. The word Ã¢â¬Å"endÃ¢â¬ echoes the end of life- supported by the statement Ã¢â¬Å"we shanÃ¢â¬â¢t dream to much hearÃ¢â¬ , perhaps Golding implicitly stating that no one dreams in Castle Rock because death is the end of dreams. Once again I feel that Hill has been more successful at portraying death. Whilst her terms are clichÃ ©d, she adds a greater degree of subtlety in her descriptions as well, for example the Ã¢â¬Å"moonlightÃ¢â¬ , the implicit means have greater depth to them, unlike GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s explicit descriptions. Finally Hill also presents death in a physical manner as well as through description, through the death of Kingshaw. When Kingshaw dies, it shows death on a physical level, but it may also have a deeper meaning. It was evident from the start of the book, that KingshawÃ¢â¬â¢s death loomed, however the death signifies the death of the protagonist and victory for the antagonist. This is arguably the death of Ã¢â¬Å"innocenceÃ¢â¬ . This is comparable to GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s death, describing PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s moments before his death: Ã¢â¬Å"he heard it before he saw itÃ¢â¬ - the verb heard suggests once again PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s death always loomed, rather like KingshawÃ¢â¬â¢s. Unlike the death of Kingshaw however, PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s death signals the death of rational, not innocence. I think that Hill has been more effective at portraying death because her description of Kingshaw creates far more emotion rather than the death of Piggy, GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s descriptions are too dull. In summary both authors portray death through the use symbolism, settings and physical death. I think that portrayal of death is very effective, especially Hills description. Hill develops her characters throughout her novel, and when Kingshaw dies it is a genuine shock to the reader. Because of GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of development, PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s death is not as emotional as KingshawÃ¢â¬â¢s.
Friday, August 30, 2019
I am really pleased to have some discussion about my interest to apply for Sloan MBA program. I am determined to take admission in an MBA program in a reputable school and Sloan School of Management is one of my top priorities. The reason that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve chosen your school is that MIT Sloan is most popular and reliable in administrating and imparting education to business professionals. It has been able to launch change in our current business environment.Its reputation is much known among professionals and still its well educated and learned faculty is still contributing to this culture. I am much acquainted with the culture you promote and also easy and compassionate essay questions you ask. By taking MBA program at Sloan School of Management I hope that I will learn a lot about business dealings and can perform much better in the construction business.Our company is a recognized name in construction industry of China. We have been engaged in steel structural design, manufacture, and installation for more than ten years. Amazingly, our sales have grown tenfold in the last two years.Though it appeared that we were flourishing but there were uncontrollable crisis through which we were passing. For several months we worked under great pressure and none had time to consider companyÃ¢â¬â¢s long-term goals.As IÃ¢â¬â¢ve spent uncountable hours in allocating assignments, monitoring status, solving problems, and handling nonstop incidents. My experience shows that we need a change in companyÃ¢â¬â¢s environment.We have to change current project-based model to a mass production and commercialize our products. In order to enhance my career as a Ã¢â¬Ëproject managerÃ¢â¬â¢ and my working knowledge in this business I am very keen to take this program. During my management career IÃ¢â¬â¢ve successfully dealt with several complex situations and led a team to complete most difficult and time consuming projects in rural China.I have also shown outstanding quantitat ive analysis skills and innovated new and extremely useful operational modes in the company. I want to excel my skills and compete in this business as a successful businessman.My capabilities show that I am a proven leader not just an entrepreneur. In order to put my vision into practice I must continue my studies and complete my MBA from Sloan institute of Management. I hope Sloan will play important role in transition of my career success.My visions are clear and I am determined to pursue my career in this field. After graduating from Sloan, I will return to my family business to take charge of overseas market expansion, and form a total solutions transnational steel-structure on partnership basis. I have planned to combine our unparalleled design originality with competitive cost advantage to broaden our business scope by promoting customized Composite Steel Structural Villa.Besides, I have also planned to establish Green House Business Group and Material Innovation Team for bett er environmental protection. Furthermore, my plan also includes developing multilateral investment strategies and conducting upstream industrial integration. Finally, I aim to capture venture capital for carrying out IPO in 2015. My ultimate objective is to lead my business as a driving force in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s economy with a clear mission and improve living standards.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Quantitative Article #2 - Research Paper Example 137). The second population under study included emergency department (ED) nurses working at the Prince of Wales Hospital in Shatin. A sample of 22 patients that needed NG tube reinsertion of tube placement check that presented themselves at the hospital participated in the study. The sample precluded patients who had certain medical complications including those who experienced vomiting tachypnea, and fever (Ho, Rainer & Graham, 2013, p. 138). Non-probability sampling was applied for the patients since not all patients had an equal chance of representation. Those with complications did not have a chance to be included as part of the sample. For the patients, accidental sampling was applied considering that only those patients who met the criteria and availed themselves at the hospital during the study period were featured in the study. Although opportunity sampling is often associated with bias and therefore reduces the representativeness of the sample and the generalisability of th e findings of the study, it was appropriate for this study since the samples were later randomized which served to increase the generalisabilility of the findings. The sampling plan applied was also appropriate considering time constraints and the limited number of patients that visit the hospital who are part of the population under study. While a sample of 22 patients seems small, the number has the capacity to produce reliable and generalizable results. A sample of 30 nurses participated in the study. The sampling of nurses was done in two stages. Given that all the nurses in the hospital had equal chance of participating in the study, probability sampling applied for the first stage of sampling. The second stage of sampling was based on convenience sampling considering that all those who returned their questionnaires featured in the study irrespective of
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Causes of delay in public sector construction projects in Saudi Arabia - Research Proposal Example ave been increasingly plagued by lengthy and frequent delays that seem to have become more prevalent after the regulatory reform and subsequent construction company-restructuring of the early and mid-1990s. To improve this situation, there has been increased research interest in identifying the different factors that could cause these delays. One of the main policies and goals of public sector construction is the upgrading of project performance; including completion of projects within time and budget constraints and reduction of costs (Alzeban & Sawan, 2013). In addition, execution and completion time is one of the most important performance measures in the public construction sector. However, the construction industry is subject to the influence of unpredictable factors and changing variables, which could potentially cause project completion delays (Pretorius, 2012). There is a need to understand these causes of delay in order to save public money by identifying potential mitigatin g actions. Delay in the proposed project refers to overrun time beyond the specified data of completion regardless of whether the government grants extension time. Chidambaram et al. (2012) state that there is an increase in public construction project delays and cost, noting the need to investigate the different categories of causes that are responsible for cost overruns and time delays in public-funded projects. The authors argue that this is necessary to ascertain whether current measures put in place to mitigate project delays are valid. Consequently, the researchers reviewed questionnaire survey responses from forty-one previous studies investigating the causes of construction delays. They find that respondents across the forty-one studies reported over 100 causes for project execution and completion delays, which they were able to group into 18 categories (Chidambaram et al., 2012). Nevertheless, they caution that researchers used widely different ranking systems, resulting in
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Attitudes of Arabic (Saudi) speakers toward learning English language - Research Proposal Example The attitude of Arabic speakers towards leaning the English language is normally influenced by positive and negative factors. The positive factors influencing the attitudes of Arabic speakers in learning the English language include; motivation, which plays a crucial in the attitudes developed by Arabic speakers in learning the English language. Motivation is essential in the development of attitudes by Arabic speakers towards the English language in that; the lack of motivation for speakers normally result to the loss of interest by Arabic speakers in learning the English language. The lack of motivation, therefore, normally affects the success of the Arabians in learning the English language (Derwing, Et al, 2004). Pedagogic factors also tend to influence the development of attitudes by Arabian speakers towards learning the English language. The learning environment normally plays a crucial role in the development of attitudes by Arabic speakers towards learning the English language. When the learning environment is favorable, it is evident that Arabic speakers are likely to develop positive attitudes towards learning the language. If the learning environment enhances a better understanding of the English language by the Arabic speaker, then it is evident that Arabic speakers will develop a positive attitude towards learning the language. However, unfavorable learning environments normally result to the development of negative attitudes by Arabic speakers towards learning the English language (Edwards & Giles, 2006). The teaching programs also play a role in the attitudes of the Arabic speakers in learning English. To enhance the development of positive attitudes by Arabic speakers towards the English language, it is essential that the learning curriculum is designed in a way that it favors the understanding of the English language by the Arabic speaker. If the curriculum does not favor the
Monday, August 26, 2019
Social Effects of the War in Iraq - Essay Example The worst struck by wars are people directly involved in the war - soldiers, their families and Iraqi civilians. These individuals critically create a society. Attitude formation of Iraqi civilians towards the Americans will expectedly be very unforgiving. They will be desperate to seek revenge from them for tearing apart their homes and killing their children for no apparent reason. Even though no American was personally involved in this except for the US government and the forces, the Iraqi civilians will develop a deep hatred for all Americans as it will remind them of their perfect lives that they ruined. (Farris, 2002) Attitude measurement is a quantitative technique used to measure the change in attitude towards a certain object (Bohner & Wnke, 2002). In this particular case the attitude measurement will be to see which factors have influenced change in the minds of the Iraqi civilians about Americans on the whole and especially George Bush. As said before, it comes as no surprise that individuals directly involved in the war will develop an extremely negative impression of the Americans. But those individuals, who were not directly involved, like the American civilians, have developed a sympathetic attitude towards the Iraqi people. This is because Americans are highly aware and they are much more civilized than Iraqi people. They value life more.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
DNA Sequencing - Essay Example The Sanger methods are able to sequence best from 30-350 nucleotides and therefore genomic sequencing strategies have been developed to sequence longer DNA of interest such as the gene of interest in this plant. In the shotgun sequencing strategies, DNA often of large size is shredded into smaller fragments that can then be sequenced individually. Shredding of the DNA is done by restriction enzymes or mechanically by shearing the DNA. The sequences of these fragments are then reassembled into their original order based on overlaps. Alignment of the sequences is done by a computer program to yield the complete sequence. In Whole-genome shortgun, the DNA is obtained without prior physical map knowledge and indiscriminately sheared into fragments of 100kb which are then cloned into plasmids and transformed. The DNA inserts obtained from the plasmids are sequenced individually and consequently assembled into a long contiguous sequence. The strategy has limits due to gaps which arise duri ng assembly due to the repeats in the sequences. Another strategy is primer walking which tends to deal with whole shortgun sequencing challenges in the assembly of Ã¢â¬Å"gapsÃ¢â¬ . Clones carrying inserts for sequences for both sides of the gap are identified and the DNA is sequenced normally. Resultant sequence is used to design a primer downstream from the former primer position. Pairwise-end sequencing is another strategy for genome sequencing which is performed on both sides of DNA of interest as opposed to one in whole-genome shortgun.... Usually alignment of the sequences is done by a computer program to yield the complete sequence. In Whole-genome shortgun, the DNA is obtained without prior physical map knowledge and indiscriminately sheared into fragments of 100kb which are then cloned into plasmids and transformed. The DNA inserts obtained from the plasmids are sequenced individually and consequently assembled into a long contiguous sequence. The strategy has limits due to gaps which arise during assembly due to the repeats in the sequences. Another strategy is primer walking which tends to deal with whole shortgun sequencing challenges in assembly of Ã¢â¬Å"gapsÃ¢â¬ . . Clones carrying inserts for sequences for both sides of the gap are identified and the DNA is sequenced normally. Resultant sequence is used to design a primer downstream from the former primer position. These steps are repeated over and over until the complete sequence of the insert is elucidated. Pairwise-end sequencing (double-barrel shortgun ) is another strategy for genome sequencing which is performed on both sides of DNA of interest as opposed to one in whole-genome shortgun. It reduces Ã¢â¬Å"gapsÃ¢â¬ thereby minimizing assembly errors which are common in whole-gun sequencing. However it poses a huge computational challenge during assembly. DNA is shredded into 150mb fragments and inserted into BACs in hierarchical shortgun sequencing strategy. Inserts are mapped into a physical map and organized by known location Ã¢â¬Å"Golden Tiling PathÃ¢â¬ . Inserts are fragmented further and cloned into plasmid where they are again recovered and sequenced according to Ã¢â¬Å"the Golden Tiling PathÃ¢â¬ . This strategy is applied for long pieces of DNA such as whole genome or chromosome and in
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Philosophy of Assessment - Term Paper Example This essay considers my personal philosophy of assessment. One of the primary considerations I recognize in terms of assessment is developing a means of judging student participation and effort throughout the marking periods and course. One of the primary challenges I had when originally considering assessment was the nature of developing assessment strategies that are student specific, or measure objective standards of comprehension. While ideally classrooms are constituted by students of the same level of achievement, in reality this is not always the case. Early in my teaching career I recognized that I would have to make the difficult decision of requiring all students to achieve the same level of achievement. From this foundational level I then began to design assessment strategies that required students to achieve an objective standard of accomplishment. In these regards, I have been greatly influenced by constructivist theory of assessment, specifically a text Understanding by Design. This text contends that assessment should be designed from a top-down structure with the end goal in mind. Working from this theory, each semester I considered the ultimate objective for the course and then worked back from that in developing assessment strategies that would work as standards bearers for the marking period. Still, I recognize that this approach to assessment should only be used to construct a general approach to curriculum development. As is later demonstrated, the most effective instruction and assessment will consider the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s background knowledge and phenomenological grasp of the learning material in developing dynamic and multi-varied assessment mechanisms. In addition to these constructivist approaches to assessment, I have become more directly acquainted with direct methods of assessment. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s indicated that one of the primary such means of demonstrating direct assessment strategies is through the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s active involvement in student learning. In these regards, Ã¢â¬Å"the teacher a) presents information, b) develops concepts through lecture, c) requires students to recite or respond to questions, d) provides feedback and reteaching as necessaryÃ¢â¬ (Payne 63). In terms of my own assessment strategies, I implement direct methods in a variety of ways. After determining the end of course objective I would then break down the marking period into manageable units (chapters). Within each of these units (chapters) there would be a final exam and quizzes. The quizzes were implemented in large part as a means of motivating students to remain consistent with scholastic work throughout the chapter. In these regards, oftentimes I approached quiz grades with a more lenient approach than I did the chapter tests. The student quiz scores also functioned to aid me in identifying areas of student progress that are more in need of attention. Indeed, student quiz assessment was a learning process for the students as well, giving them an early idea of elements of the text that they must further study. With the final exam then students had to demonstrate their mastery of the material. Rather than functioning as a learning aid, the final exam existed solely for the purpose of measuring the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s achievement in relation to the objective progress they made within the specific unit. Through research I have discovered a
Friday, August 23, 2019
Online TEFL Courses vs Onsite TEFL Courses - Research Paper Example This leads to the question of which instruction is more efficient. Online and onsite TEFL courses, although they have different means, have one goal and that is to promote English proficiency. There are benefits and disadvantages for each mode of TEFL instruction and may have a fair share of successful learning among its students. Onsite TEFL course The curriculum taught for students in both online and onsite TEFL class may be the same; but what lacks online TEFL session is human interaction. Surely, there is already an online camera where the other person can see whom he is talking to. However, genuine relationship may not occur. According to Hill (2008), teachers in onsite classes can easily detect students who are poorly motivated and can easily address this problem, whereas online teaching could not provide this type of approach and may lose his studentÃ¢â¬â¢s attention before he would know it. The depth of learning may vary, although it is more likely to experience both theore tical and practical use of the language, since it can easily give the students hands-on practice (Donahue, 2006). On the other side is the financial cost. Practically, online TEFL is cheaper and schedule-flexible. Onsite courses would require time and more resources for instruction.
Describe how water quality is determined Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
Describe how water quality is determined - Essay Example Keywords: Water quality, guidelines, standards, contamination, pollutants, permissible limits, microbiological. Water Quality Standards Water is essential to life on this planet and its quality impacts both human beings and aquatic marine life (Anon., edugreen, n.d.). Pure water, fit for human consumption and other applications, is odorless, colorless and tasteless but these qualities are lost when contamination takes place. World Health Organization (WHO) has been the nodal agency for developing water quality parameters and recommending them for adoption by the different nations with appropriate modifications, through respective national agencies like the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the US. WHO guidelines are only recommendatory in nature, and factors like socio-economic conditions, traditional usage practices, need to conserve water as a resource etc. play important role in the quality standards of water in each country ((Fewtrell and Bartram, 2001). To study the quali ty and lay down relevant parameters, water is broadly divided under three different usages for developing standards for each category - drinking water, wastewater for reuse and recreational water (Fewtrell and Bartram, 2001. pp.17-20). Contamination itself is caused by chemical, physical and microbiological factors. Hence quality standards are based on the matrix of water usage and the relevant contaminants. For example, permissible contamination in agricultural or recreational use water is significantly higher/different than that for human consumption. Thus, the pollutants and permissible limits for different water usages have been developed. Chemical contaminants are very many and include chlorine (as disinfectant), pesticides/herbicides (used in agriculture), toxic organic/inorganic chemicals from industry, soaps and other cleaning agents in domestic wastewater running into sewers, canals and river streams etc. (Excel, n.d.). WHO guidelines indicate the tolerable daily intake (TD I) limits for presence of different chemicals in water, beyond which it is considered unfit for consumption. In respect of genotoxic carcinogens, TDI is nil. For other chemicals, standards of maximum permissible concentration levels are developed for each end-product. While developing the guidelines and standards, verification by relatively easy chemical analysis methods either on spot or in laboratories was kept in mind for practical reasons. Physical contamination consists of suspended particles like sand, soil, clay, decaying vegetative matter, precipitated salts etc. apart from metals, dissolved salts and minerals. These contaminants give color, taste and odor to water, impacting quality of the end-products. Dissolved salts and minerals also discolor clothes when such water is used for washing. Multilayer filtration, water softening and demineralization processes help to reduce physical contamination of water. US-EPA recommends a limit of 500mg per liter or 500ppm for total diss olved salts (TDS) (Excel, n.d.). Individual permissible limits have also been laid down by EPA for heavy metals (toxic) like arsenic, mercury, cadmium, lead and silver. Microbiological contamination is the presence of pathogenic microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminthes, and is usually caused by fecal matter ingress. WHO guidelines identified Escherichia coli (E.coli) for sampling and recommend a zero presence in a 100 ml sample and a presence in
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Examine Shakespeares presentation of Ophelia Essay Throughout the play, Ophelia is treated as an inferior by the men in her life. She is instructed and also used by them to achieve their own selfish goals. As Rex Gibson states, Shakespearean women were virtually helpless pawns in the power games of their main relatives. Her tone towards them is most often submissive and accepting of their commands, although the audience is given occasional glimpses of the seemingly intelligent and opinionated young woman beneath her clichi d exterior. In the play, she is merely a side story. She has no particular role in the play rather than to reflect the traits of other characters, and this secondary importance to the plot reflects Shakespeares presentation of her. Upon Ophelias first appearance in the play, it becomes obvious that she and her brother have a close relationship. Laertes tells Ophelia, let me hear from you, to which she replies Do you doubt that? Laertes mentions Hamlet as a cause for concern, weigh what loss your honour may sustain, If with too credent ear you list his songs, Or lose your heart, or your chaste treasure open To his unmastered importunity. He believes that Hamlets intentions are dishonourable. He is quick to form this opinion, and as he feels he knows Hamlets true motives, this suggests that men of the era shared this abusive attitude towards women. While he may be expressing a genuine concern for his sisters well-being, there is a tone of authority in his voice. He is not her father, but as a male he talks down to her. His primary concern may be more for the honour of his family, which Ophelia would destroy should she conduct a relationship with Hamlet. She does however retort defensively with, Do not as some ungracious pastors do, Show me the steep and thorny way to heaven, Whiles like a puffed and reckless libertine Himself the primrose path of dalliance treads. Here she is warning him against hypocrisy and recognising that some men (ungracious pastors) are promiscuous while expecting women to be virtuous. In seeing that society has double standards, the audience is shown that there is a side to Ophelia deeper than is obvious in most of her appearances in the play. A modern audience would feel that her reply is justified, and would respect her for standing up for herself. She has a more relaxed attitude to verbalisation of her thoughts when she is in the presence of her brother, but still respects and accepts his will. In conversation with Polonius for the first time in the play, the audience sees the submissive side to Ophelia. Polonius is also quick to suspect Hamlets motives, reinforcing the suggestion that all men of this time have a common view of women. Polonius treatment of her reflects the double standards of Shakespeares society, as he at first seems disgruntled that she acts like an inexperienced green girl | Unsifted in such perilous circumstance and then goes on to say think yourself a baby, enforcing her inexperience. Ophelia implies her own inability to form an opinion I do not know my lord what I should think. This seemingly air-headed behaviour could cause much annoyance to a modern audience, whether she simply cannot think for herself or has an opinion and is too intimidated to voice it. Polonius perception of his daughter becomes clear with the statement you have taen these tenders for true pay | Which are not sterling. Tender yourself more dearly. The financial references here show that these tenders are worth nothing to Polonius unless they become cash, or stirling, in his hand. The acquisition of wealth comprises all of Ophelias uses to him. She is a possession and a tool to him. This is noted by Gibson, women were regarded as possessions, as capital to be exploited. He also harbours selfish concerns about his own social standing, and that Ophelia will tender him a fool, as her behaviour reflects upon him as a father. Ophelia concludes by submitting yet again, I shall obey, my lord. Despite the fact that Ophelia has firstly rebelled against expectations by meeting with a man without the permission of her father, or has gone against social mores (Pitt), she continues to treat her father as her superior and conform to his wishes. Again the audience witnesses the dual personality of Ophelia. This could leave an audience confused, and unsure of exactly what to think of her as a character, as her true identity remains a mystery until her death. After Hamlet advances upon her looking like he had been loosed out of hell, Ophelia runs to her father, seeking protection and comfort. She enters the room saying O my lord, my lord, I have been so affrighted. Modern audiences may draw comparisons between this and the behaviour of a small child. Not only is she treated like one by men, but at this point she proves their treatment to be right. This might anger a modern audience who could perceive her to be lacking common sense and therefore totally unable to deal with a hostile situation. To increase the antagonism of a post-feminist audience, she then goes on to relate that she was sewing in her closet at the time of incident while to a Shakespearean audience sewing was part of life for women, a modern audience would see this as a stereotypically effeminate activity being used by Ophelia to play up her helplessness. As stated by A. C. Bradley in the Victorian era, a large number of readers feel a personal kind of irritation against Ophelia; they seem unable to forgive her for not having been a heroine. While this does not represent the viewpoint of todays audience, it shows that even in Victorian times when women were still much less free than they are now, Ophelias helplessness is exaggerated to the point of irritation. We witness Ophelias utter submissiveness yet again, and her acting as if she has no thoughts of her own I do not know, | But truly I do fear it. Ophelia incessantly addresses her father submissively as my lord. It can be presumed that Ophelia has been taught to address him thusly, reflecting on Polonius as a father, who is an example of men at the time of the play. Polonius sees Ophelia as being far inferior to him. He speaks to her in short commands Come, go with me, rather than asking her to do things. He also seems to think that she is untrustworthy, as he questions her, Have you given him any hard words of late? suspecting that she has not done what he told her to do. As Ophelias letters are read aloud, she stands on the stage in silence to endure this harsh and humiliating experience. She is utterly powerless as her most intimate secrets are exposed to the King and Queen. Her father has granted her no right to privacy, to the point that he publicly proclaims and meddles in her affairs. Polonius says I have a daughter have while she is mine, this bluntly suggests his intentions to sell her, and continues Who in her duty and obedience, mark, | Hath given me this. Here, it is as if he is marketing her, making her good qualities known to the King and Queen, telling them to mark, possibly in the hopes that they approve of her as a wife to Hamlet. In this situation Polonius social standing would vastly improve. She is certainly seen by him as capital to be exploited. Upon the Kings questioning Ophelias chastity, Polonius asks him What do you think of me? This shows that in a Shakespearean society, the behaviour of a daughter was seen to be an indication of how honourable her father was, again proving that women were taught chastity, modesty, obedience and faithfulness to their husbands (Gibson), to be used as social and financial tools. Elaine Showalter accurately describes Ophelia as that piece of bait. She is used to confirm whether or not Hamlets separation from her is the cause of his madness. Before the first conversation between Hamlet and Ophelia (which is held under surveillance by Polonius and the King), Ophelia is not even given a greeting, but is spoken to only by the Queen, and exclusively about Hamlet And for your part Ophelia, I do wish That your good beauties be the happy cause Of Hamlets wildness. Their main concern is Hamlets return to his prior sane state and hope to be able to use Ophelia as a way of bringing it about. Ophelia herself has absolutely no control over events relating to her. She speaks briefly, only when spoken to, and to express her desire to see Hamlet well again Madam, I wish it may. Her father again talks to her commandingly, as if she were a dog, Ophelia, walk you here. When she is at first left with Hamlet, she remains silent onstage throughout his long monologue, until he mentions her. A conversation begins with Ophelias greeting Hamlet, Good my lord, and hereafter she uses the words my lord repetitively. When she mentions rememberances that she as longed long to re-deliver, she is shunned by Hamlet, as he says I never gave you aught. Ophelia further shows the audience that she is an intelligent young woman rather than a girl who is full of nonsense. She elaborates on her feelings for Hamlet with the words: My honoured lord, you know right well you did, And with them words of so sweet breath composed As made these things more rich. Their perfume lost, Take these again, for to the noble mind Rich gifts wax poor when givers prove unkind. There my lord. The audience sees here through her passionate statement that these words held great importance to Ophelia and that she is expressing the depth of her emotion. With Hamlet she gives the first indications of her true feelings, things that she would not share with her father. She is however belittled and mocked by Hamlet (Ha, ha, are you honest? ). Her clever response to Hamlets mad ramblings gives us another insight into the more hidden side of Ophelia. Fundamentally, however, Ophelia is a side story, and is of secondary importance to the main plot and has no story without Hamlet. She appears in only five of the plays twenty scenes (Showalter) and is used to inform the audience of what Hamlet was like before his descent into madness. As stated by Angela Pitt, Ophelias main function in the play is to illuminate a particular facet of Hamlets decline. She has known him in both friendship and gallant devotion. She fulfils this role: O what a noble mind is here oerthrown! The courtiers, soldiers, scholars, eye, tongue, sword, Th expectancy and rose of the fair state, The glass of fashion, and the mould of form. While we see here that she is articulate, is underestimated by Polonius and does have something of value to say, it is quite tragic that this outburst of expression is not of herself, but of Hamlets personality prior to his fathers death. As she is used throughout the play by men, here Shakespeare uses her as a way of imparting information to the audience. At this point in the play, the audience can sympathise with Ophelia, as the pain of rejection by a lover exists outside of time. By proving to the audience that she is intelligent and educated, she wins respect, as modern society values these qualities highly in both men and women. Just before the play, Hamlet initiates a tirade of sexual references directed toward Ophelia. It begins with heres metal more attractive, a mocking reference to her looks. He goes on to say to Ophelia Lady, shall I lie in your lap? to which she replies No my lord. He persists in trying to humiliate Ophelia with phrases such as Do you think I meant country matters? and Thats a fair thought to lie between maids legs. Ophelias responses are short and she again repeats my lord No my lord, Ay my lord, I think nothing, my lord. Her words are sharp and brief as she denies Hamlet the pleasure of provoking an outburst from her. While this repetition could show her merely being weak and submissive, as she is forced to take his insults, it can also be argued that she knows here exactly what she is doing, as she later goes on to retaliate, You are naught, you are naught Ophelias naivety must be assumed and not genuine, because later she gives as good as she gets (Pitt): Ophelia. You are keen my lord, you are keen. Hamlet. It would cost you a groaning to take off mine edge. Ophelia. Still better, and worse. Here she neglects to say my lord, which shows that her tone has changed, and she has given up trying to be tolerant of Hamlet. Ophelias descent into madness portrays her in an ironic and rather tragic light. Her condition has caused her to be more vocal and to reject authority. Now people notice that Ophelia is speaking, and try to understand what she says, when her mind is not her own nothing she says makes sense. Even though she is louder, her position is still largely unchanged her madness expresses itself through her, but does not allow her to express her own true thoughts. At the time, women who were vocal and opinionated, who challenged authority or sought freedom were often portrayed as being insane. This overly emotional, nonsensical state was also thought to be womanhood in its purest, unsuppressed form Ophelia might confirm the impossibility of representing the feminine in patriarchal discourse as other than madness, incoherence, fluidity, or silence Ophelia represents the strong emotions that the Elizabethans as well as the Freudians thought womanish and unmanly. (Showalter). The themes of her songs are death and true love the two issues that have most recently affected her. Firstly, her exploitation by Hamlet: And I a maid at your window, To be your Valentine. Then up he rose, and donned his clothes, And dupped the chamber door, Let in the maid, that out a maid, Never departed more. In Shakespearean times, it was extremely important that a woman maintained her chastity it is implied quite obviously by these songs that Ophelia did engage in sexual relations with Hamlet. This would have meant the loss of her reputation altogether. People will now take notice of these open declarations, as a woman her promiscuity is condemned, whereas a mans promiscuity (Hamlets) will be overlooked. This exposes Shakespearean societys double standards. A woman of high social standing such as Ophelia was expected even more so to exhibit virtue, and so was very vulnerable and open to condemnation, with every relationship putting her in a potentially life-destroying position. Now, when the relationship has dissolved, she is in a difficult position. Her imprisonment is particularly distressing to a modern audience, who are very used to seeing women with much more freedom. While todays morals are not quite as tight as Shakespearean morals, a modern audience will still feel a lot of sympathy for the poor abused and abandoned Ophelia. As well as being an issue of chastity, it also involves trust. She trusted Hamlet with her love and her reputation wrongly. Secondly, she sings about her fathers death: At his head a grass-green turf, At his heels a stone. His death has marked the loss of two of the men in her life who, while they were controlling and dictating, were all that she had, and both of whom she loved dearly. When Ophelia falls into the river where she eventually perishes, she does nothing to save herself. She is as passive at the moment of her death as she was throughout life, doing nothing to save herself. Gertrude is able to describe Ophelias death in detail, down to the exact type of flowers Ophelia had decked herself with (crowflowers, nettles, daisies, and long purples). This may be seen as Gertrudes expression of genuine sympathy for her fellow woman. Ophelias death can be seen as a suicide, but Gertrude, perhaps to prevent Ophelia from being denied a Christian burial, which would have deepened Laertes grief, describes her as having been one incapable of her own distress, suggesting that she fell in and simply did not care enough to get out. Ophelias last influence in the play is her funeral, where Laertes jumps into her grave in grief. Hamlet however jumps in after him, and they begin to grapple irreverently, arguing over who loved her more: Hamlet. I loved Ophelia, forty thousand brothers Could not, with all their quantity of love, Make up my sum what wilt thou do for her? Hamlet persists in trying to out-do Laertes in his love for his sister, to the point of ridiculousness Woot drink up eisel, eat a crocodile? | Ill dot. This sudden display of affection for Ophelia from Hamlet contrasts hugely with his treatment of her during her life, and seems unrealistic. Laertes grief for Ophelia is overshadowed by his desire for revenge as Hamlet has destroyed his family. The two use their love for Ophelia as an excuse to let private rivalries surface, even at her funeral. This is symbolic of how she has been used throughout the play, by Polonius to get closer to the king and by Hamlet to portray his insanity. To a Shakespearean audience, peoples treatment of Ophelia would have been typical of the way in which women were treated. Her silence and oppression would have been met with sympathy, as well the empathy of women of the time. While her situation with regards to Hamlet and his cold rejection of her still holds poignancy with a modern audience, people today may question more why she made little attempt to defend herself in certain situations, and why she so blankly followed the instructions of her father and brother at the expense of her own mental and emotional well-being. Bibliography Shakespeare, William, Hamlet, Heinemann, 1996 Pitt, Angela, Shakespeares Women, David and Charles, 1981 Gibson, Rex, Cambridge Student Guide: Hamlet, Cambridge University Press, 2002 A. C. Bradley, Shakespearean Tragedy, 1904 Showalter, Elaine, Representing Ophelia: Women, Madness and the Responsibilities of Feminist Criticism. in New Casebooks: Hamlet, Macmillan, 1992 Eleanor Crossey Malone L6G.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
How to Determine Face Shape How to determine Face Shape. Face Shape Calculator. What ismyface shape? All people have one of 7Ã basic face shapes: round, square, long (or Ã¢â¬Å"oblongÃ¢â¬ ), triangle or pear, heart or inverted triangle, diamond or ovalÃ shaped faces. With respect toÃ beauty, theÃ face shapeÃ plays a part.And though many people may not have thought about theÃ shape of their face, there are many whose faces have characteristics they do not love. Knowing your face shapeÃ can help you make confident and informed decisions about many things,Ã hairstyles, spectaclesÃ included. To figure it out, pull or comb your hair completely away from your face.Now,youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need a ruler or a tape measure. Be sure to write down the numbers for each step: Start with the forehead. Measure across yourÃ foreheadÃ at the widest point. Move on the cheeks. Measure the widest length across yourÃ cheekbones. Now on to the jaw. Measure your jawline at its widest point. Finally, measure the length of your face.Place the ruler at the top of your forehead at your hairline and measure to your chin. Your ratio will either be 1 (your width) to 1 1/2 (your length) or 1 to 1 or 1 to 2. Heart Shaped Face Heart-shaped facesÃ are wider at the forehead and gently narrow down at the jawline.Thechin may beÃ pointedÃ in thisÃ face shape. This shape is also known as the Ã¢â¬Å"inverted-triangle.Ã¢â¬ Square Shaped Face You haveÃ square faceÃ if your face has the following measurements: The width of your forehead, cheekbones, and jaw are equal. The facehas sharp, angular features including a sharp jawline. (Ifthefeatures are soft and rounded, you are likely a Ã¢â¬Å"round face shape.Ã¢â¬ ) The facecross ratio is 1 to 1 (Length = Width) or 1 to 1 1/2. Round Shaped Face You have a classicÃ round faceÃ if you fit the following: The width of your forehead, cheekbones, and jaw are equal Thejaw is slightly rounded as opposed to angular. The round face hassoft features in general. TheÃ difference between a round face and a square faceÃ (which also measures the same across as long) lies in the angles.Ã Square facesÃ have strong, angular features, whereas around faceÃ has soft features. TheÃ facecross ratioÃ is 1 to 1 (length = width). Diamond Shaped Face You have aÃ diamond faceÃ if you are widest at your cheekbones, and your jawline and forehead are the same length (but still narrower than your cheeks). Long Shaped Face (Oblong Shaped Face) Long face shapesÃ are longer than they are wide. Ifthe length to the width of the faceis more than 1 1/2, then you fall into this face shape zone. Oval Shaped Face The length is equal to one and a half times width. Triangle Face Shape Which is the best Face Shape? How does Face Shape correlate with Looks Beauty? In theÃ beautyÃ industry, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ makeup,Ã hairÃ or evenÃ clothing being discussed,Ã face shapeÃ plays a very important part. Face Shapes can play an important role in how bothÃ men women look. Best Face Shape For Men There is a large percentage ofmenwho have aÃ squareÃ face shape, and it is theÃ most ideal and desired shapeÃ to work with. The angular jaw line, well defined chin, clefted chin, all give rise to theÃ manly faceas we know it.Therefore, when it comes toÃ haircuts and beards, the goal is to square off the face, while taking into consideration any imperfections and how to camouflage them. Best Face Shape For Women Face ShapeÃ plays a very important role in making women appear feminine (What MakesÃ Beautiful Women?). TheÃ oval faceÃ is considered theÃ best facial shape for women. AnÃ oval faceÃ can get away with almost anyÃ haircut and jewelry,Ã because of its balanced proportions. How to Alter / Accentuate your Face Shape Make it Ideal Perfect Shaped? Can you Shape your Face Shape? 1) Hairstyles Round Face TryÃ hairstylesÃ that fall justÃ below the chin, like the long bob, or soft, adapted layers that areÃ shoulder length. AvoidÃ one length, blunt cutsÃ like theclassic bob-cut. Square Face Experiment with curls, or long, sleekÃ haircutsÃ with layers that begin from the jawline and downward. AvoidÃ blunt-cut bangsÃ andÃ one-length bob hairstyles,Ã which highlight your angular jaw rather than downplay it. Oval Face AnÃ oval face shapeÃ can usually sustain any sort ofÃ haircut. Find your best feature and highlight it with your hairstyle. Great bone structure? Consider an angular bob that complements your chin.Gorgeous eyes?Ã Blunt or side-swept bangs will draw attention there. Heart Face Draw attention away from the chin with side swept bangs or brow-skimming bangs. Avoid choppy layers thatmake the chin prominent. Triangular Face Short haircutsÃ with a lot of volume are ideal for triangular faces. You can also choose along cut, as long as it hits at your collarbone or lower. Diamond Face Try to createÃ width at the foreheadÃ with bangs, and balance it out with layers that start at theÃ chin. Long Face Brow-skimming, side swept bangs or chin-length bobs are ideal for creating the illusion of width. Curls and waves also work well when adding width. KeepÃ haircuts short, never long because they tend to drag down the face. 2) Spectacles Sunglasses for Face Shapes Round Face To make around faceÃ appear thinner and longer, tryÃ angular narrow eyeglass framesÃ to lengthen the face, a clearbridgethat widens the eyes, andÃ framesÃ that areÃ widerÃ than they are deep, such as aÃ rectangular shape. Oval Face To keep theÃ oval faceÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ natural balance, look forÃ eyeglass framesÃ that are as wide as (or wider than) the broadest part of the face, orÃ walnut-shaped framesÃ that are not too deep or too narrow. Oblong Face To make anÃ oblong faceÃ appear shorter and more balanced,Ã try frames that have more depth than width, decorative or contrasting temples that add width to the face, or a low bridge to shorten the nose. Diamond Face This is theÃ rarest face shape. To highlight the eyes and soften the cheekbones, tryÃ framesÃ that have detailing or distinctive brow lines, or tryÃ rimless framesoroval and cat-eye shapes. Square Face To make a square face look longer and soften the angles, tryÃ narrow frame styles, frames that have more width than depth, andÃ narrow ovals. Triangular Face To add width and emphasize the narrow upper third of theÃ face, tryÃ framesÃ that are heavily accented with color and detailing on the top half or cat-eye shapes. 3) Change Face Shape Through Cosmetic Surgery A)Ã Botox For Masseter HypertrophyÃ Masseter muscle reductionÃ is a procedure often requested by Asian ethnicities and now very commonly inÃ India. The Masster is a muscle in the jaw area anÃ enlarged masseter muscleÃ leads to formation of aÃ square shaped masculine appearing face in women. The use ofÃ botulinum toxinÃ can effectivelyÃ treat the masseter hypertrophy, reduce and change the shape of the face predictablyÃ (make the face and the jawline slim),Ã without any unwanted surgical trauma and complications. To read more on howÃ BotoxÃ works, read this blogpost:https://debrajshome.wordpress.com/2012/03/03/best-botox-injections-in-mumbai-india/ B) Fillers to Augment Cheeks Chins Dermal Filler InjectionsÃ likeÃ Juvederm VolumaÃ play an important role inÃ adding volumeÃ where necessary, easily, painlessly, without surgery. So, theÃ chin can be augmentedÃ or the cheeks, as necessary. C) Use of Chin Implants to elongate the face. Works inÃ diamond shaped oblong facesÃ to make them oval, by addingÃ width at the chin area. This also markedly improvesÃ profile pictures. D) Use of Cheek Implants to widen Mid-Face Area Works inÃ oblong faces, to addÃ width to the cheeksÃ and balance the face. E)Ã VASER Liposuction Works inÃ round facesÃ toÃ reduce the increased fatÃ and make the jawline chin more defined and angular. Also,Ã removes the double chin. F) Orthognathic Surgery Complex Maxillo-Facial Surgery in which the bones of the face are cut re-arranged to change facial shape. In summary, working out yourÃ face shape typeÃ can be the first step in evaluating many things:Ã which hairstyles will suit you, which spectacles sunglasses will look good on you, how you should apply makeup, etc. In fact,Ã understanding your face shapeÃ is the first step in understanding you. Once you know your face shape, you can rectify the deficiencies aim for theÃ best face shapeÃ by visually changing your face shape via hairstyles, makeup, glasses or even by usingÃ cosmetic surgery procedures.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
How can the Micro Environment Affect Huawei? Introduction: The assignment will have two parts. The first part will discuss a Chinese company called HUAWEI. The uncontrollable variables (Microenvironment and Macroenvironment) have affected the controllable variables (Marketing Mix) in HUAWEI. There are two factors affect the effectiveness of companies marketing activities: one is the company cannot control, such as political, legal, economic, cultural, geography and other environmental factors, known as uncontrollable factors, which is the external environment faced by the company; One is the company can control, such as product, price, place, promotions and other marketing factors, be known as controllable factors. The essence of markting activities is using internal controllable factors, so that external uncontrollable environment adapt to the controllable factors, and to meet the individual and the organizations goals. Kotlers said, If the company produce the appropriate product, set an appropriate price, the use of appropriate place and s upported by an adequate promotion, then the the company will be successful (Kotler, 2001). The second part will discuss three main learning points of the Marketing Game. Part 1 1.1 About HUAWEI: Huawei is a leading global telecommunications solutions provider with long-term partnerships with operators around the world.. Huaweis products and solutions is about wireless products (LTE/HSPA/WCDMA/EDGE/GPRS/GSM, CDMA20001xEV-DO/CDMA2000 1X, TD-SCDMA and WiMAX), core network products ( IMS, Mobile Softswitch, NGN ), network products(FTTx, xDSL, Optical, Routers, LAN Switch) , applications and software(IN, mobile data service, BOSS), as well as terminals(UMTS/CDMA). Major products are designed based on Huaweis ASIC chipset and utilize shared platforms to provide quality and cost-effective products. Huaweis products and solutions are deployed in over 100 countries and serve 36 of the worlds top 50 operators. Huaweis RD centers is built in many countries, such as Silicon Valley and Dallas in USA, Stockholm in Sweden,Moscow in Russia, Bangalore in India, and Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Shenzhen, Hangzhou, Guangzhou in china.(1) 1.2 The Controllable Variables of Huawei The controllable variables in a company mean the Marketing Mix. In 1953, Neil Ã¢â¬ ¢ Borden in the American Marketing Associations inaugural speech created a term called marketing mix and its meaning is more or less in market demand, to some extent on by the so-called marketing variable or market factor the impact, in order to find a certain market response, companies want to be an effective combination of these elements to meet the market demand, to obtain maximum profit. In fact there are dozens of marketing mix elements, Boden proposed marketing mix consists of 12 elements, known as the 12-factor marketing mix strategy, namely, product plans, pricing, brand, supply routes, personal selling, advertising, promotion , packaging, display, support, physical distribution and market research. This combination of strategies to enable people to engage in marketing, operations can be more clarity from the start in these areas, and scope of the study of marketing has done a better defined. 4Ps came along with the theory of marketing mix. These elements were summed up as four categories: Product, Price, Place, Promotion, also known as the 4Ps.by a Professor of the University of Michigan Jerome McCarthy in 1960 in his book Ã «Basic MarketingÃ ». In 1967, Philip Kotler in his best-selling book Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning and Control further confirmed by 4Ps of the marketing mix as the core method. 4Ps marketing strategy since its introduction, on the theory and practice of marketing, had a great impact, was regarded as a classic marketing theory by marketing managers. Almost all managers when they plan theirs marketing activities consciously and unconsciously consider from the 4Ps theory. 1.2.1 Product of Huawei The company must follow the needs of customers, and design their products and services. The product has a large areas, it contains product features, quality, appearance, packaging, brand, service, support. Huawei offers the most complete telecom product portfolio, covering mobile, broadband, core network, transmission network, data communication, value-added services, terminals and services.(3) Huaweis corporate culture is a kind of wolf culture. The CEO of Huawei who called Zhengfei Ren has been promoting the wolf culture in the early years. sharp, aggressive, selfless teamwork are the true meaning of the wolf culture. Zhengfei Ren ueses the militarization way to management companies such as powerful labor intensity, strict management system, and ruthless survival of the fittest. 1.2.2 Price of Huawei According to different market, companies develop different pricing strategies, product pricing is based on corporate brand strategy, focusing on the brands gold content. The Price means products pricing, discounts, financing, financial leasing, limited supply. The cost advantage of Chinese companies will continue to increase, because China has a lot of cheap labor. Under the premise of increasingly popular telecommunications products, the price factor is becoming more and more important to the operators. Huawei has not been satisfied with the low-price products profits, and Huawei want to get high profits from its brand. 1.2.3 Place of Huawei Company does not directly to consumers, and it focuses on the cultivation of distributors and sales networking, enterprise and consumers. In a precise location and in a exact time, providing an accurate number of products and services.is very important to a company. Now the changing commercial environment also has an impact on the Place. The place includes location, logistics, market coverage, the Internet, mobile phones and so on. Huaweis Place can be divided into two kinds. The first channel is the sellers channels, such as in a number of target markets, set up an office directly for product sales. The second channel is a joint venture, such as joint venture with 3Com in China and Japan market, Huawei brand export products; while the Sino-Japanese outside the market, through the 3Com brand and channel marketing. Huawei uses joint venture to build the brand channel. 1.2.4 Promotion of Huawei Companies utilize promotions to stimulate consumption growth, or to attract other brands consumers, or promotion of early consumption. All these promotions are used to promote consumption growth. Promotion includes advertising, public relations, news, marketing, media, budget. Huaweis promotions also include advertising. In the international market, Huawei has been employed a veteran British advertising company to guide its release strategy for advertising the various stages of development. Huawei active attend many exhibits, and it help Huawei be well-known. Lower price than the rival bid is also an important way of promotion, 1.3 The uncontrollable variables of Huawei and effect The marketing environment is uncontrollable, and it can be divided into the microenvironment and the macroenvironment. All environments have good or bad effects to a company. 1.3.1 The microenvironment of Huawei and its effect Microenvironment is closely linked with the company itself, which includes the internal environment, marketing channel firms, different types of markets, customers, competitors and publics. The internal environment: The internal environment consists mainly of staff, funds, equipment, raw materials, market. Most Huaweis high-quality employees are highly educated. Theyre very care about to realize theirs value. Because they are highly educated employees with professional knowledge and ability, they can easily understand the customers actual ideas and know how to improve products. Through continuous improvement of products, companies can win more customers and profits. The marketing channel firms: The marketing channel firms contain suppliers, agents, marketing services agencies, banks. Huaweis marketing channel firms are constructed with sales, service partner, training partners and customers. It is a complete system. This distribution system includes first-class high-level distributors, as well as the subordinate regional agents, advanced authentication agents, the industry integrators, an agent, regional distributors, which are intended to provide customers with integrated solutions. There is no absolute affiliation among all the channel firms, and all the channel firms enjoy the same preferential policies. All the agents are relying on the products with Huaweis brand, performance, service, a comparable level of interest. Huawei has also announced the formal introduction of targeted agents sales staff sunshine mileage club recognition program, the program with Huawei in the channels of promotion of the implementation of an incentive mechanism, Huawei announced that all sales agents can participate in the club and become a club member. The sales staff sales to go through them to Huaweis statistical summary of reported orders to score points. According to the number of points, members may be from the basic member to silver members, and even be gold membership. Huawei based on their performance carry out a variety of different levels of reward. Since implementation of 2002 Sunshine business plan, Huawei partners received recognition and support of sales channels, has made great progress and future market development. Through these ways, Huaweis products are well-known. They are good for Huaweis products and promotion. The types of market: Market is divided by the purchaser and the purchase of market segmentation purposes, including: consumer markets, producers market, brokers market, government and international markets. Huaweis main objective is in the international market. New products to enter the international market, generally there are two kinds of methods: one is the first access to developed country markets, the latter access to developing country markets; the other is the first access to developing markets, then access to developed countries. Huawei is the adoption of the second way. Huawei first entered the Hong Kong market, and then into Russia, and South American markets. Huawei actively participated in the activities of major infrastructure projects, bidding for its high-quality products, low prices to win consecutive national large-scale Projects. The continuous development and changes in the market prompted the continuing reform of Huaweis products and innovation. The competitors: Company marketing activities are often surrounded by various competitors, and constraints, therefore, companies must identify the variety of competitors, and take different competitive responses. The changes of competitors marketing strategy and marketing activities the changes directly affect the corporate marketing. The most obvious is the competitors product price, advertising, promotions, changes, and product development, sales and service. Huaweis competitive environment is very cruel, and it makes Huawei continually improve its product. In addition, Huawei also pays attention to advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations. The main ways are: meet with key customers, all-round contact with clients, to establish and develop with the host countrys telecoms regulator contact, to discover and develop a strong local agent or partner, to participate in various exhibitions and telecommunications forum for professional, technical exchanges with customers The publics: The publics refer to the ability of companies achieve their marketing objectives with actual or potential interest and influence of groups or individuals. It is very important to a company to do well with the public. Huaweis do a very good job with the public, establish a good brand 1.3.2 The macroenvironment and its effect Macroenvironment effects microenvironment with great social forces. It includes political, economic, social and technological. In many books, it is called PEST or STEP. The political environment and its effect: Political environment is the condition of the external political situation and national guidelines and policies in an enterprise marketing activities. Huaweis products are sold in more than 100 countries of the world. Different countries have different continental law, and they include common law, the specific laws, especially laws and regulations involved in international marketing vary widely. This makes Huawei to understand and adapt to different political environment. The political and economic close link together, and more and more countries competition has been reflected in the economic competition. Huawei cannot develop the international market without the way of political. In the early period of internationalization, Huawei complies with an unwritten rule: it is based on Chinas diplomacy direction. Huawei set up offices of the principle that countries have diplomatic relations with China. The CEO of Huawei called Ren Zhengfei explicitly mentioned: Chinas foreign policy is successful in the world, it get more friends in the world. Huaweis marketing is following with Chinas diplomatic, I believe we will be successful The economic environment and its effect: Economic environment means socio-economic conditions, the operational status and trends of economy in a companys marketing activities. Economic environment analyzes the changes in consumer income, consumer spending patterns, consumer savings and credit conditions and other factors change. The financial crisis in 2009, under the pressure and thrust, whether Europe and the United States markets can be successful in this year is more important than sales of 30 billion U.S. dollars. Huawei put their business focus on the European and American markets, and it got great success. In the august of 2009, Huawei became one equipment supplier of the worlds biggest WiMax operator Clearwire in US, and Huawei became the main supplier. The social and cultural environment and its effect: Different countries and different areas have different social and cultural environment. So a new product get into a new market, the company must understand the customers cultural and hobbies. Huaweis staff before they going abroad must receive relevant training to understand the social and cultural in the training sector, such as the differences between cultures and related products and others. But another culture, values, religion and lifestyle is not suited to them. They meet many of the problems in another country. The first one is that local people do not know much of china. A huge different cultural gap between the country and china make the local people do not understand and trust Huaweis product. This lack of understanding between cultures enables local coustomer even do not believe that China has capable of producing communications equipment. Through a variety of communication, foreign customers eliminate the misunderstanding of China. Similarly, respecting foreign cultures is also very important to win local customers. Huaweis set up Islamic prayer room for Arab customer, and get respect from Arab. The technological environment and its effect: Science and technology are primary productive forces. Each of the new technology would give some businesses to create new market opportunities, which will produce new industries, and at the same time, it also makes old industries to be affected or even be eliminated. Advanced technology is the most important basis in the communications market. Huawei has invested heavily in technology and the benefit is obvious increased. Huawei pay a lot money on researching and developing in the early period. Even in the difficult period, more than 10% of Huaweis sales revenue were used on the R D investment. Huawei employs about 30,000 worldwide, of which 48% of employees engaged in R D annual patent applications, and its break through 1000, and become the most patents company of China. Because of the thousands of patents, Huawei have ability to bargain with the worlds premier suppliers, and build laboratory to develop the most advanced products together. Huaweis technical strategy is trying their best to meet the customers needs. Through new technology, increasing R D investment in new technology, Huawei can get more market share. Part 2 2.1 The rule and introduction of the marketing game The marketing game can help us understand the market, our competitors. All the students are divided into 4 groups. Each group is a software company. All the companies make the same product which is word processing software. The potential customers can be divided into six main segments. The six segments are the modern students, the home scribblers, the harried typists, the professional writers, the high-tech managers and the concerned parents. Different segments have different requirements of the software. The market is growing every year, but some segments are growing faster than others. We also need to make advertising and make our product to meet customers needs.. Each company has a basic word processing software, and the NO. of special is 8, the error protection is 3, the Ease of learning is 3. We can pay money on modifying our product. All the firms have two channels of distribution to reach customers. The middlemen in channel 1 serve customers with a limited line of computers and computer software. The middlemen in channel 2 offer more limited service and handle larger assortments of products, they also offer lower prices. All the firms have three ways to make promotion: Personal selling, advertising and sales promotions. About advertising, there are five ways: pioneering- primary demand, direct competitive- own brand now, indirect competitive- own brand future, reminder-reinforces familiar brand and corporate. Each firm has 700,000$ as its budget. The main cost include: Product Modification, Unit Production Cost, Sales Force salary severance, Advertising, Sales Promotion, Marketing Research Reports and Interest on Loan from Bank. All the firms have four years to compete with each other. (6) 2.2 The firm of Fourstars 2.2.1 Our idea and brand First, we should think about our target market, and which segment to sale our product. We think we need to try our best to meet more and more customers needs. The other firms may choose one target market, but we can develop one mixed product. We can get more market share. The six segments can be divided into two main parts: The first part is Student, Home and parents. These three segments require the word processing software easier, and they do not need too many functions. The channels of the three segments are quite similar. The advantage is we do not need to spend much money on modifying our product, and the risk of our product is lower. The disadvantage is the price of these three segments is much lower. We cannot sure to get much profit. The second part is Typists, Writers and managers. These three segments require the word processing software more professional. They need more functions. The channels of these three segments are also quite similar. The advantage to get into these markets is the price of the product is very high, we may get more profit. The disadvantage is that we need to pay a lot of money on modifying our product, we have high risk. Finally, we decided to design a easier product, and chose the first part. We also think many brands about our product, such as fortunate stars, stars and fourstars. We choose fourstars to be our brand, because we are the fourth firms, and we want to be the sale star. 2.2.2 The four years of Fourstars The first year: We develop our new product, the new product have 10 special commands, 5 error protections and 8 functions in ease of learning. The retail price in channel 1 is $156.40 and in channel is $129.90. We also do marketing research and advertising. The channel 2 is more important to our product. We pay less money on modifying our product. We believe we will be successful. All the members of our firms are very excited. We all wait for the result. But we fall in the first year. We make a big mistake, because we product too less product, we forget to ask the output. We also lose the marketing share. We have a cold winter, but we do not lose belief. The finally winner is the true winner. The second year: The first year, we are loser. We must find the reason and the disadvantage of our product. First, we modify our product. We modify the special commands to 11, and the function of error protecting to 4. We compare our product with other firms, and we find that our product is really very perfect. We believe that we can get more marketing share, and more profit this year. The price of our product in channel 1 is $168.50, and in channel 2 is $147.84. When we get the result of the second, we still lose in the second year, but we fell very strange. The unit sale of our product is the highest of 4 firms. We have the highest sale in 3 segments. Why we lose? The teacher say something to us, we need to get more profit from our product. How to get more profit is the main thing we need to do in the next year. The third year: One year past, though we lose, we get the belief. We believe our product is perfect, and we do nothing about modifying. The only thing we should do is how to get more profit. We increase our price, and the price in channel 1 is $239.67, and in channel 2 is $205.65. We do not increase our price too much, because we are afraid of losing customers. We have 3 years experience, and we are very comfortable. We have prefect product and highest marketing share. Of course, we can be successful. The result is we lose again, but this year we are profitable. The unit sale of our product is still the highest, and we are the largest supplier in 4 segments. Because one of the firm called Micro Twos product is suit for Students. Our customers are Home, Typists, Writer and parents. We need to make changes of our product. We still make a big mistake: we give too much commission. We also need more middlemen The fourth year: This is the last year, and it is the last chance. According to our customers, we develop a new product. Our new product has 12 in special commands, 5 in error protection and 8 functions of easy of learning. We hire more middlemen and we also increase the price of our new product. We are not foolish again, we reduce the commissions.. We think about every detail. Finally, in the last year, we get the most profit of all the firms. All the workers of our firm fell very happy. We learn a lot from the marketing game. We know how to get profit. Though we make many mistakes, I think we cannot make the mistake twice. 2.3 The learning points of the marketing game According to the marketing game, all the group members learn a lot. Here are 3 main learning points of the marketing game. 2.3.1 Proper product to target market Companies need to choose its target marketing and groups of consumers. Then they can produce the proper product. The product of a company is limited, but the customers demands are unlimited. Therefore, companies only choose less market to be their target market. Monopolistic market can help company to get more profit. The 3IZNESS product is made for Managers, though the price of their product is very high, they do not have competitors, they sale very well. The famous marketing master Philip Kotler said: the target market is the part of the qualified available market (those with the interest, income, access, and qualifications for a particular offer) that the company decides to pursue.(5 by Philip Kotler) Customers are the god to the companies. Companies should have the proper, so that they can have their customers. We change our product for 3 times, the purpose of these changes is to meet the customers need. The target market is very important to a company. You have the target, then you can produce proper product. 2.3.2 The importance of Marketing research Doing marketing research is very important to a company. Marketing research can help the company make right marketing decisions. Through market research, we can find a number of new market opportunities and may develop new products to meet customers needs. We can get information about our product in the market share, we also can know much about our competitors. All these information can help the company develop new product and change market stratagem. During the marketing game, we all do well in marketing research. In the third year, our company find that the Micro Twos product is quite similar with our product, and its price is lower than us. In the fourth year, we change our product immediately. That is one main reason we can win in the last year. 2.3.3 Profit is the first The aim of a company is get more profit from the market. A company is successful or not, the sole criterion is the profit. In the marketing game, the first year and the second year, we do not get any profit in the market. It causes we have less budget in the next year. We cannot expand more market. We also learn how to gain more profit from the marketing game. Profit is an important factor for the development of the company. Conclusion Strategic marketing is the module which I studied in the university of warwick. Thank you for giving us great lectures and a interesting marketing game. I learned a lot from this module. I still remembered that the tutor of Caroline Bitch ask us questions every morning. It help me to remember what is marking, the marketing mix and so on. All the teachers can make the strategic marketing more lively and easy to understand. Reference http://www.huawei.com/corporate_information.do http://www.quickmba.com/marketing/mix/ http://www.huawei.com/products_services.do http://wiki.mbalib.com/wiki/%E5%B8%82%E5%9C%BA%E8%90%A5%E9%94%80%E7%8E%AF%E5%A2%83 by Philip Kotler The marketing game
Monday, August 19, 2019
William Blake William Blake was born in 1757 in London. This city influences most of his work. For example, the depressing poem Ã¢â¬ËLondonÃ¢â¬â¢. As Blake grew up it became harder and more painful for him to act like normal people, he hung around with a selection of rebels and reformers and he considered every form of oppression as an act of evil. He got into trouble with the law for saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Damn the King and damn all his subjects!Ã¢â¬ (From a biography of Blake). Blake was also influenced by the religion Buddhism in the verse: Ã¢â¬ËHe who bends to himself a Joy Doth the winged life destroy; But he who kisses the Joy as it flies Lives in EternityÃ¢â¬â¢s sunrise.Ã¢â¬â¢ One of BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s favoured poems is Ã¢â¬ËThe TigerÃ¢â¬â¢ of the Ã¢â¬ËSongs of ExperienceÃ¢â¬â¢. The well-remembered lines are, Ã¢â¬ËTyger! Tyger! Burning bright; in the forests of the nightÃ¢â¬â¢. Blake is comparing the creature, the tiger, to the Devil; he mentions fire a lot and also a furnace and anvil, hammer and chain, like in a blacksmithÃ¢â¬â¢s it is as hot as Hell. He also questions whether the Lord, who made something so tame and sweet as the Lamb, could ever have created the Tiger, or was it Satan? Ã¢â¬ËDid he who made the lamb make thee?Ã¢â¬â¢. The final verse is the same as the first verse except for one word. He replaces Ã¢â¬ËcouldÃ¢â¬â¢ with Ã¢â¬ËdareÃ¢â¬â¢. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s no longer Ã¢â¬ËWho could frame thy fearful symmetry?Ã¢â¬â¢ but now you would have to Ã¢â¬ËdareÃ¢â¬â¢ rather than be able to. Ã¢â¬ËThe LambÃ¢â¬â¢ is a song of innocence. In theory it is completely opposite to Ã¢â¬ËThe TigerÃ¢â¬â¢. It is really sweet and innocent. In the first verse he is asking the lamb if he knew who made it and in the second verse he is telling it that it was God, Ã¢â¬ËFor He calls himself a LambÃ¢â¬â¢. The entire poem is informing the lamb where he came from in the eyes of an innocent little boy. As I mentioned before, Ã¢â¬ËThe TigerÃ¢â¬â¢ is completely opposite to Ã¢â¬Ëthe LambÃ¢â¬â¢. One is a Ã¢â¬ËSong of InnocenceÃ¢â¬â¢ and one is a Ã¢â¬ËSong of ExperienceÃ¢â¬â¢. In Ã¢â¬ËThe LambÃ¢â¬â¢, Blake talks about how God and the lamb have so much in common, Ã¢â¬Ëwe are called by His nameÃ¢â¬â¢, and in Ã¢â¬ËThe TigerÃ¢â¬â¢, he talks about how God and the tiger have so little in common, Ã¢â¬ËDid he smile his work to see? Did he who make the Lamb make thee?Ã¢â¬â¢. He talks about how God and the heavens are ashamed of the creation of the tiger: Ã¢â¬ËWhen the stars threw down their spears; and watered heaven with their William Blake :: English Literature William Blake William Blake was born in 1757 in London. This city influences most of his work. For example, the depressing poem Ã¢â¬ËLondonÃ¢â¬â¢. As Blake grew up it became harder and more painful for him to act like normal people, he hung around with a selection of rebels and reformers and he considered every form of oppression as an act of evil. He got into trouble with the law for saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Damn the King and damn all his subjects!Ã¢â¬ (From a biography of Blake). Blake was also influenced by the religion Buddhism in the verse: Ã¢â¬ËHe who bends to himself a Joy Doth the winged life destroy; But he who kisses the Joy as it flies Lives in EternityÃ¢â¬â¢s sunrise.Ã¢â¬â¢ One of BlakeÃ¢â¬â¢s favoured poems is Ã¢â¬ËThe TigerÃ¢â¬â¢ of the Ã¢â¬ËSongs of ExperienceÃ¢â¬â¢. The well-remembered lines are, Ã¢â¬ËTyger! Tyger! Burning bright; in the forests of the nightÃ¢â¬â¢. Blake is comparing the creature, the tiger, to the Devil; he mentions fire a lot and also a furnace and anvil, hammer and chain, like in a blacksmithÃ¢â¬â¢s it is as hot as Hell. He also questions whether the Lord, who made something so tame and sweet as the Lamb, could ever have created the Tiger, or was it Satan? Ã¢â¬ËDid he who made the lamb make thee?Ã¢â¬â¢. The final verse is the same as the first verse except for one word. He replaces Ã¢â¬ËcouldÃ¢â¬â¢ with Ã¢â¬ËdareÃ¢â¬â¢. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s no longer Ã¢â¬ËWho could frame thy fearful symmetry?Ã¢â¬â¢ but now you would have to Ã¢â¬ËdareÃ¢â¬â¢ rather than be able to. Ã¢â¬ËThe LambÃ¢â¬â¢ is a song of innocence. In theory it is completely opposite to Ã¢â¬ËThe TigerÃ¢â¬â¢. It is really sweet and innocent. In the first verse he is asking the lamb if he knew who made it and in the second verse he is telling it that it was God, Ã¢â¬ËFor He calls himself a LambÃ¢â¬â¢. The entire poem is informing the lamb where he came from in the eyes of an innocent little boy. As I mentioned before, Ã¢â¬ËThe TigerÃ¢â¬â¢ is completely opposite to Ã¢â¬Ëthe LambÃ¢â¬â¢. One is a Ã¢â¬ËSong of InnocenceÃ¢â¬â¢ and one is a Ã¢â¬ËSong of ExperienceÃ¢â¬â¢. In Ã¢â¬ËThe LambÃ¢â¬â¢, Blake talks about how God and the lamb have so much in common, Ã¢â¬Ëwe are called by His nameÃ¢â¬â¢, and in Ã¢â¬ËThe TigerÃ¢â¬â¢, he talks about how God and the tiger have so little in common, Ã¢â¬ËDid he smile his work to see? Did he who make the Lamb make thee?Ã¢â¬â¢. He talks about how God and the heavens are ashamed of the creation of the tiger: Ã¢â¬ËWhen the stars threw down their spears; and watered heaven with their
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Employee motivation is the level of energy, commitment, and creativity that a company's workers apply to their jobs. In the increasingly competitive business environment of recent years, finding ways to motivate employees has become a pressing concern for many managers. In fact, a number of different theories and methods of employee motivation have emerged, ranging from monetary incentives to increased involvement and empowerment. Employee motivation can sometimes be particularly problematic for small businesses, where the owner often has spent so many years building a company that he/she finds it difficult to delegate meaningful responsibilities to others. But entrepreneurs should be mindful of such pitfalls, for the effects of low employee motivation on small businesses can be devastating. Some of the problems associated with unmotivated workers include complacency, declining morale, and widespread discouragement. If allowed to continue, these problems can reduce productivity, earn ings, and competitiveness in a small business. On the other hand, small businesses can also provide an ideal atmosphere for fostering employee motivation, because employees are able to see the results of their contributions in a more immediate way than in large firms. Besides increasing productivity and competitiveness, a highly motivated work force can allow a small business owner to relinquish day-today, operational control and instead concentrate on long-term strategies to grow the business. ... ... advancement. Managers who recognize the "small wins" of employees, promote participatory environments, and treat employees with fairness and respect will find their employees to be more highly motivated. One company's managers brainstormed to come up with 30 powerful rewards that cost little or nothing to implement. The most effective rewards, such as letters of commendation and time off from work, enhanced personal ful-fillment and self-respect. Over the longer term, sincere praise and personal gestures are far more effective and more economical than awards of money alone. In the end, a program that combines monetary reward systems and satisfies intrinsic, self-actualizing needs may be the most potent employee motivator.
Analysis of To My Dear and Loving Husband by Anne Bradstreet Anne Bradstreet, the author of Ã¢â¬Å"To My Dear and Loving HusbandÃ¢â¬ was a Puritan. This had great influence on the meaning and theme of her poem. This poem was actually not published until almost 40 years after she died. She lived in a harsh religious world where it was looked down upon for women to be courageous and smart. She lived a life that where she was unspoken and obedient to because of her religious belief. She had many concerns and doubts about her puritan beliefs and lifestyle. These doubts are presented in her poem. The main theme of BradstreetÃ¢â¬â¢s poem is her undying love for her husband. In this paper I will discuss how tone and imagery help the reader to understand the theme of this poem. Tone is the manner in which a poet makes his statement; it reflects his attitude toward his subject. Tone is hard to hear in the written word so therefore the reader must make a distinction of how the poet is attempting to sound in the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s own mind. In this poem, Bradstreet delivers a tone that is soft and...
Saturday, August 17, 2019
This is a short discourse on the research of the Media Effects Theories, showing how the new theories or current information that is available currently support old theories such as the cultivation theory, spiral of silence theory, and uses-and-gratifications theories among others. This will begin with a brief discussion on Media Effects Theory and proceed to highlight the current developments in this scholarly field and finally show how these theories support different effects models. The developments in media have accelerated at an enormous rate given the recent advances in technology. New forms of media such as DVD and the internet have changed the way media is delivered to the audience and also the way it is perceived thus raising the question of whether or not the conventional theories on Media Effect are still viable for the current scenario (Berger 1997). To properly understand this, it is important to first delve into the nature of Media Effects Theories. Media Effects Theory. Media Effects theory can be generally defined as the theory that postulates that any level of exposure to representations or depictions of violence in any of various media cause or have the potential to cause increased aggression or violence in the behavior of the audience (Bryant 2002). Media Effects Theories are developed to provide a better understanding and to gain a deeper insight into the effects that media has had with respect to society and also the role that media plays in influencing social and political change (MacQuail 2000). The recent developments in media however have raised new concerns regarding the perspectives and a proliferation of approaches concerning the Media Effects Theory including its research methodology, communications education, and public policy issues (Berger 1997). Given these criticisms of the theories on media effects, it becomes relevant to examine the existing theories and to examine how an application of the current theories and research may help in addressing this concern. Existing Media Effects Theories This section will briefly discuss a few of the more predominant and influential Media Effects Theories today. The first discussion will be on the Hypodermic Needle Model, which is a theory that the influence of media is so powerful that it can be used to Ã¢â¬Å"injectÃ¢â¬ messages into the minds of the audience and control them (Baran et al 1995). This model was developed by the Marxist Frankfurt School of intellectuals in the 1930s. The current application of this theory today is criticized by many because the Hypodermic Needle Model was mainly a result of the fear and concern that was generated during the practice of political propaganda and psychological warfare during World War I (Baran et al 1995). The second Media Effect Theory that will be discussed is the Empiricist Tradition which as the term suggests employs an application of the methodologies and principles of the natural sciences to attempt to measure the direct effects on audiences that may be attributed to media exposure (Mass Media Effects: A Study 4). Paul Lazarsfeld, an important researcher who contributed much to the development of empirical conducted a study into voting behavior carried out in the 1940s which to the development of the highly influential Two Step Flow Model of mass communication (Bandura 2001). There have been many criticisms with regard to this theory. While early on it was regarded as influential in this field with the theory of the Ã¢â¬Å"Limited EffectsÃ¢â¬ , there have been studies conducted in Europe that show the exact opposite (MacQuail 2000). The current application of this theory now might be made more credible by improving the methodological diversity which scientists and social theorists have criticized (MacQuail 2000). Another influential Media Effect Theory is the Cultural Effects Approach which basically tries to analyze the social, political and cultural effects (MacQuail 2000). The advocates of this approach fall into two (2) categories, the Marxist Approach and the Literary Criticism Approach (Mass Media Effects: A Study 6). While these two (2) views have gained a strong following among many, the most common criticism is that given the technological advances today, there must be a method by which these theorists are able to provide empirical evidence supporting their assertions (Chomsky et al 2002). The other influential perspective is the Uses and Gratification Approach which allows insight into precisely how the Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ media differ from the Ã¢â¬Å"oldÃ¢â¬ insofar as audiences utilizes these media (Gauntlett 1998). This focuses primarily on how the audience or people in general use the media to gratify their needs. While this approach is still widely used, the problem of different needs and uses particular to a single individual makes the approach unreliable to some. As MacQuail pointed out, Ã¢â¬Å"it's very difficult to connect a particular need with a particular type of media content since media use may be considered to supply at one time or another all the benefits named (57)Ã¢â¬ Now that it has been shown how these approaches have defined and been applied in Media Effects Theories, an examination of the current theories and research prevailing today must be done. Current Theories and Research As previously mentioned, the recent technological advances have altered the way that media is perceived and received by the audience, allowing for arguably greater effect or influence upon the general public. This section will attempt to discuss how the traditional approaches may utilize the current theories and research available to be able to adapt with the ever changing needs and demands of this field of study. The first critical issue to be discussed is the rising influence of postmodernist thought on the approaches to Media Effects Theory (Fisher et al 2004). The main ideas of this theory rely on the fact that the ideas and perceptions of individuals has already been preconditioned by media in a sense that whatever input or meaning that is derived from media is already placed in a predefined context (MacQuail 2000). This school of thought therefore suggests that in analyzing the behavior and effects the fact that media has already preconditioned the minds of the individuals and influenced the Ã¢â¬Å"reception. Miller 2005)Ã¢â¬ An approach that is closely linked with this development is the New Audience Research, which focuses primarily on the ethnographic studies of audiences while not totally disregarding the Ã¢â¬Å"theoryÃ¢â¬ aspect of the matter (Fisher et al 2004). This approach uses the reception analysis, which has developed from a combination of traditional qualitative resear ch strategies in sociology with some of the ideas of reader response theory in literary criticism (Mass Media Effects: A Study 8). The important aspect of this approach is ability to confront and properly address the issues concerning the origins and influences of meaning that an individual conceptualizes with regard to the media input that he is exposed to. Another important factor to consider is the cultivation theory, which was primarily concerned with concerned with the Ã¢â¬Å"cumulative and overarching impact it (media) has on the way we see the world in which we live (Miller 2005). Ã¢â¬ This theory has recently been discussed in the research of James Shanahan and Michael Morgan which tackled the issue of the cultivation theory and television. The main idea of this research revealed that television programming cultivates a mainstream world view that reflects and perpetuates the interests of social and political elites and their stakes in maintaining the status quo (Shanahan and Morgan 2000). This type of analysis reveals the relevance of this approach to the Theories on Media Effects because of the fact that this approach considers the context within which the images presented in media with respect to the changing times and culture (Bandura 2001). While this approach may not be necessarily complete and is not without its criticisms, when combined with the Empirical Tradition, a new method which combines the stronger features of the scientific method and the approach of the cultural method may prove to be credible enough to silence its critics. Application of Media Effects Theories In order to arrive at a more concrete understanding of the issue at hand, it is interesting to apply what has been discussed to a current issue. One of these issues is the effect of media on the moral fiber of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth. This will be discussed in brief to provide an accurate detail of just how these media effects theories can be applied to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s social problems. As a quick glimpse at the recent events that grace the newspaperÃ¢â¬â¢s headlines show, there is indeed a growing concern over the violence that happens in schools all over the country (Chomsky et al 2002). The issue is not limited to the increased teenage pregnancies or even drug abuse. It encompasses a whole range of issues such as bullying and perhaps the most frightening, schools shootings (Chomsky et al 2002). With all of these problems plaguing not only the education system but also the entire nation as of late, the question that comes up is whether or not this is actually caused by the violent television shows and movies in the cable TV programming. While there has been no irrefutable data that lends credence to the theory that violent shows in television is the real culprit behind todayÃ¢â¬â¢s misguided and often violent youth, there can also be no argument against the statement that though violence on television may not be the sole cause, it is one of the contributory causes (Fisher et al 2004). There are a number of media effects theories that solidify the argument that it is violence in media or in television that has led to the deterioration in the moral foundation of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth (Gauntlett 1998). A good example of this would be the Ã¢â¬Å"Hypodermic Needle ModelÃ¢â¬ , which is a theory that the influence of media is so powerful that it can be used to Ã¢â¬Å"injectÃ¢â¬ messages into the minds of the audience and control them (Gauntlett 1998). While it is not being suggested that television is being used a medium to brainwash todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth and turn them into an army of zombies for the media, it is being proposed, however, that the programming and quality of shows on television, such as violent programs, has a profound effect upon the youth (Shanahan and Morgan 2000). The influence, therefore, that television has upon the youth is undeniable. While this influence may have waned in the advent of the internet age and YouTube, it still bears a considerably large amount of influence over the younger children who are not able to access such media devices (Fisher et al 2004). Therein lays the danger; young children with impressionable minds are exposed to violence on television leading to a deterioration in the moral and ethical foundations of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s generation. Another interesting theory to correlate the cause, violence in television, with the effect, violent behavior of the youth, is the postmodernist thought on the approaches to the Media Effects Theory (Gauntlett 1998). The main ideas of this theory rely on the fact that the ideas and perceptions of individuals has already been preconditioned by media in a sense that whatever input or meaning that is derived from media is already placed in a predefined context (Fisher et al 2004). This school of thought therefore suggests that in analyzing the behavior and effects the fact that media has already preconditioned the minds of the individuals and influenced the reception (Shanahan and Morgan 2000). As such, given the volatile nature of the mind of a child, the input that a child receives from violent programming on the television creates a preconceived notion of what the real world is like. By showing violence on television, a child may think and perceive that such behavior is actually socially acceptable (Fisher et al 2004). Studies have shown that there have been causal links found between aggressive and violent behavior in children and the type of television programs that these children generally watch. This can also be applied to the infamous Columbine shooting wherein the investigators have theorized that the motivation for the shooters may have been influenced by forms of media (Fisher et al 2004). As stated in one of the reports, Ã¢â¬Å"Among the many theories that have surfaced regarding the motivation for this incident the most prevalent one remains the effect that media has on the minds of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth. (Fisher et al 2004) While there are those who theorize that it was the fact that the shooters were isolated from the rest of their classmates thus prompting feelings of helplessness, insecurity and depression, as well as cultivating a strong desire for attention, the attention has been focused on the effect violent video games such as Doom, which the shooters frequently played, and rock m usic such as Rammstein. Every day the world searches for answers for many of the would-be Ã¢â¬Å"avoidableÃ¢â¬ tragedies such as school shootings, gang wars and juvenile teen violence. The reason for the term Ã¢â¬Å"avoidableÃ¢â¬ stems from the fact that many consider these as effects of media influences and morally condemnable social behavior (Fisher et al 2004). While media and television, in particular, are not the main causes for these tragedies, it cannot be denied that they have contributed to these problems (Fisher et al 2004). There may not be an easy solution for this but by identifying the causes that have led to this dilemma a big step has been taken to rectify this situation and to prevent more disasters such as this from ever happening again. Conclusion From this discussion, it is apparent that the application of these Media Effects theories is versatile to say the least. There are a number of social phenomena that occur in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world that can be partly explained by these theories. Events such as the impact of media on todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth, school violence, teen drug abuse and even consumer patterns are all within the ambit of these media effects theories. It is interesting to note, however, that while suitable media effects theories are present in this discussion, the field of media studies is constantly evolving. The introduction and use of new technology that aids in the proliferation and dissemination of media could prove to challenge many of these conventional theories if not alter them. Other future concerns in this area would also have to deal with the present legislative stance on certain forms of media and their content. It remains to be seen in the future just how these events will change the understanding and function of media in present day society. There will always be debate concerning the correct approach to Media Effect. Certain schools of thought will always insist on the application of a more totalitarian perspective that incorporates unquantifiable characteristics or effects while others will insist on an empiricists approach and the application of the principles and information that the natural sciences provide. The key to resolving this issue may very well lie in which school of thought is regarded as authoritative or persuasive enough to convince the other of the credibility and validity of their findings. While this may not seem possible, events in the past have shown that even for brief moments a single school of thought or approach was held in high regard (see Empiricist Tradition). The use of these current theories on the approaches to Media Effects Theories may however be the final factor which determines what school of thought or media model will prevail. The way these current researches have incorporated the key aspects of the technological development in media as well as the way that they have addressed the previous concerns or criticisms regarding the traditional approaches makes them a valuable tool indeed in providing a deeper understanding of human nature and the relationship that it has to media.